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      Perspective: Water-Filtered Infrared-A-Radiation (wIRA) – Novel Treatment Options for Chlamydial Infections?

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          Water-filtered infrared-A-radiation (wIRA) is a promising therapeutic method, which is particularly used as supportive treatment for wound closure, and wound infection treatment and prevention. High penetration properties of the heat field and beneficial effects on wound healing processes predispose wIRA irradiation to be a non-invasive treatment method for bacterial infections in superficial tissues. Since Chlamydia trachomatis still represents the leading cause of infectious blindness in third world countries (WHO and wIRA displays beneficial effects on chlamydial infections in vitro without inducing cellular damage in ex vivo eye models and also shows beneficial effects on wound healing, this irradiation technique might represent a promising future treatment for trachoma patients. To this end, further studies investigating shorter irradiation times or irradiation of Chlamydia in chronic infections [the chlamydial stress response ( Bavoil, 2014)] as well as safety studies in animal models should clearly be performed.

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          Most cited references 65

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          Primary and secondary mechanisms of action of visible to near-IR radiation on cells.

           T Karu (1999)
          Cytochrome c oxidase is discussed as a possible photoacceptor when cells are irradiated with monochromatic red to near-IR radiation. Four primary action mechanisms are reviewed: changes in the redox properties of the respiratory chain components following photoexcitation of their electronic states, generation of singlet oxygen, localized transient heating of absorbing chromophores, and increased superoxide anion production with subsequent increase in concentration of the product of its dismutation, H2O2. A cascade of reactions connected with alteration in cellular homeostasis parameters (pHi, [Cai], cAMP, Eh, [ATP] and some others) is considered as a photosignal transduction and amplification chain in a cell (secondary mechanisms).
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            Mitochondrial signaling in mammalian cells activated by red and near-IR radiation.

             Tiina Karu (2015)
            Mitochondrial signaling is an information channel between the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the nucleus for the transduction signals regarding the functional state of the mitochondria. The present review examines the question whether radiation of visible and near-IR (IR-A) radiation can activate this retrograde-type cellular signaling pathway. Experimental data about modulation of elements of mitochondrial retrograde signaling by the irradiation (mitochondrial membrane potential DeltaPsi(m), reactive oxygen species ROS, Ca(2+), NO, pH(i), fission-fusion homeostasis of mitochondria) are reviewed. The terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain cytochrome c oxidase is considered as the photoacceptor. Functions of cytochrome c oxidase as a signal generator as well as a signal transducer in irradiated cells are outlined.
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              Absorption measurements of a cell monolayer relevant to phototherapy: reduction of cytochrome c oxidase under near IR radiation.

              Phototherapy uses monochromatic light in the optical region of 600-1000 nm to treat in a non-destructive and non-thermal fashion various soft-tissue and neurological conditions. This kind of treatment is based on the ability of light red-to-near IR to alter cellular metabolism as a result of its being absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase. To further investigate the involvement of cytochrome c oxidase as a photoacceptor in the alteration of the cellular metabolism, we have aimed our study at, first, recording the absorption spectra of HeLa-cell monolayers in various oxygenation conditions (using fast multichannel recording), secondly, investigating the changes caused in these absorption spectra by radiation at 830 nm (the radiation wavelength often used in phototherapy), and thirdly, comparing between the absorption and action spectra recorded. The absorption measurements have revealed that the 710- to 790-nm spectral region is characteristic of a relatively reduced photoacceptor, while the 650- to 680-nm one characterizes a relatively oxidized photoacceptor. The ratio between the peak intensities at 760 and 665 nm is used to characterize the redox status of cytochrome c oxidase. By this criterion, the irradiation of the cellular monolayers with light at lambda=830 nm (D=6.3 x 10(3)J/m(2)) causes the reduction of the photoacceptor. A similarity is established between the peak positions at 616, 665, 760, 813, and 830 nm in the absorption spectra of the cellular monolayers and the action spectra of the long-term cellular responses (increase in the DNA synthesis rate and cell adhesion to a matrix).

                Author and article information

                Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Zurich , Zurich, Switzerland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Fabian Cieplik, University Medical Center Regensburg, Germany

                Reviewed by: Andreas Pummer, University Medical Center Regensburg, Germany; Peter Vaupel, TU München, Germany

                *Correspondence: Nicole Borel, n.borel@

                This article was submitted to Infectious Diseases, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                10 May 2019
                : 10
                31134043 6522854 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01053
                Copyright © 2019 Kuratli and Borel.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 65, Pages: 9, Words: 0


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