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      The role of Brazilian National Health Information Systems in assessing the impact of Zika virus outbreak

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          Abstract

          Abstract The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has become a public health emergency following its association with severe neurological complications. We aim to discuss how the Brazilian National Health Information Systems can help to assess the impact of the ZIKV epidemic on health outcomes potentially related to ZIKV. Health outcomes potentially related to ZIKV infection were described based on a literature review of published studies on ZIKV infection outcomes and on recent protocols developed and published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for different stages of the life cycle. These outcomes were correlated with the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) classification system, as this is the diagnostic classification registered in the Health Information System. A suggested list of 50 clinical manifestations, dispersed into 4 ICD chapters, and their information sources was created to help monitor the ZIKV epidemics and trends. Correlation of these selected ICD-10 codes and the HIS, as well as, a review of the potentialities and limitations of health information systems were performed. The potential of the Health Information System and its underutilization by stakeholders and researchers have been a barrier in diagnosing and reporting ZIKV infection and its complications. The ZIKV outbreak is still a challenge for health practice and the Brazilian Health Information System.

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          Most cited references 35

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          First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil

          In the early 2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil.
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            Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus

            Background Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.
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              Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain-Barré syndrome – case report, French Polynesia, December 2013

               E Oehler,  L Watrin,  P Larre (2014)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rsbmt
                Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
                Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT (Uberaba, MG, Brazil )
                0037-8682
                1678-9849
                August 2017
                : 50
                : 4
                : 450-457
                Affiliations
                Rio de Janeiro orgnameFundação Oswaldo Cruz orgdiv1Instituto de Informação e Comunicação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde orgdiv2Laboratório de Informação em Saúde Brazil
                Article
                S0037-86822017000400450
                10.1590/0037-8682-0506-2016

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 46, Pages: 8
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