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      Towards a Miniaturized 3D Receiver WPT System for Capsule Endoscopy

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          Abstract

          The optimization, manufacturing, and performance characterization of a miniaturized 3D receiver (RX)-based wireless power transfer (WPT) system fed by a multi-transmitter (multi-TX) array is presented in this study for applications in capsule endoscopy (CE). The 200 mm outer diameter, 35 μm thick printed spiral TX coils of 2.8 g weight, is manufactured on a flexible substrate to enable bendability and portability of the transmitters by the patients. The 8.9 mm diameter—4.8 mm long, miniaturized 3D RX—includes a 4 mm diameter ferrite road to increase power transfer efficiency (PTE) and is dimensionally compatible for insertion into current endoscopic capsules. The multi-TX is activated using a custom-made high-efficiency dual class-E power amplifier operated in subnominal condition. A resulting link and system PTE of 1% and 0.7%, respectively, inside a phantom tissue is demonstrated for the proposed 3D WPT system. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is simulated using the HFSS TM software (15.0) at 0.66 W/kg at 1 MHz operation frequency, which is below the IEEE guidelines for tissue safety. The maximum variation in temperature was also measured as 1.9 °C for the typical duration of the capsule’s travel in the gastrointestinal tract to demonstrate the patients’ tissues safety.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances.

          Using self-resonant coils in a strongly coupled regime, we experimentally demonstrated efficient nonradiative power transfer over distances up to 8 times the radius of the coils. We were able to transfer 60 watts with approximately 40% efficiency over distances in excess of 2 meters. We present a quantitative model describing the power transfer, which matches the experimental results to within 5%. We discuss the practical applicability of this system and suggest directions for further study.
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            Wireless capsule endoscopy.

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              Formulas for the Skin Effect

               H.A. Wheeler (1942)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Micromachines (Basel)
                Micromachines (Basel)
                micromachines
                Micromachines
                MDPI
                2072-666X
                17 August 2019
                August 2019
                : 10
                : 8
                Affiliations
                Institute of Sensors, Signals and Systems, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland, UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: srk5@ 123456hw.ac.uk ; Tel.: +44-7770089372
                Article
                micromachines-10-00545
                10.3390/mi10080545
                6724057
                31426541
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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