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      Endogenous modulation of low frequency oscillations by temporal expectations

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          Recent studies have associated increasing temporal expectations with synchronization of higher frequency oscillations and suppression of lower frequencies. In this experiment, we explore a proposal that low-frequency oscillations provide a mechanism for regulating temporal expectations. We used a speeded Go/No-go task and manipulated temporal expectations by changing the probability of target presentation after certain intervals. Across two conditions, the temporal conditional probability of target events differed substantially at the first of three possible intervals. We found that reactions times differed significantly at this first interval across conditions, decreasing with higher temporal expectations. Interestingly, the power of theta activity (4–8 Hz), distributed over central midline sites, also differed significantly across conditions at this first interval. Furthermore, we found a transient coupling between theta phase and beta power after the first interval in the condition with high temporal expectation for targets at this time point. Our results suggest that the adjustments in theta power and the phase-power coupling between theta and beta contribute to a central mechanism for controlling neural excitability according to temporal expectations.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Oscillatory gamma activity in humans and its role in object representation.

          We experience objects as whole, complete entities irrespective of whether they are perceived by our sensory systems or are recalled from memory. However, it is also known that many of the properties of objects are encoded and processed in different areas of the brain. How then, do coherent representations emerge? One theory suggests that rhythmic synchronization of neural discharges in the gamma band (around 40 Hz) may provide the necessary spatial and temporal links that bind together the processing in different brain areas to build a coherent percept. In this article we propose that this mechanism could also be used more generally for the construction of object representations that are driven by sensory input or internal, top-down processes. The review will focus on the literature on gamma oscillatory activities in humans and will describe the different types of gamma responses and how to analyze them. Converging evidence that suggests that one particular type of gamma activity (induced gamma activity) is observed during the construction of an object representation will be discussed.
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            Rhythms of the Brain

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              Scalar expectancy theory and Weber's law in animal timing.


                Author and article information

                J Neurophysiol
                Journal of Neurophysiology
                American Physiological Society (Bethesda, MD )
                December 2011
                7 September 2011
                1 December 2012
                : 106
                : 6
                : 2964-2972
                1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and
                2Department of Experimental Psychology and
                3Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: A. C. Nobre, Brain and Cognition Lab., Dept. of Experimental Psychology, South Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3UD, UK (e-mail: kia.nobre@ 123456psy.ox.ac.uk ).
                Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society

                This document may be redistributed and reused, subject to www.the-aps.org/publications/journals/funding_addendum_policy.htm.



                temporal expectations, phase-power coupling, neural oscillations


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