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      Correlation between Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus and the Expression of HBsAg in Ovarian Follicles and Placenta

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          Abstract

          Background

          The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in human ovary and placenta and the vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV).

          Methodology/Principal Fidnings

          Ovarian and placental tissue specimens of pregnant women infected with HBV were collected during cesarean section and immunostained for HBsAg. The sera of the corresponding newborns were tested for HBV markers and HBV DNA. HBsAg was detected in 15 out of 33 (45%) placental tissues and was further detected in capillary endothelial cells in 4 specimens (26%), of which 3 (75%) corresponding infants were infected with HBV in utero. Out of the 33 ovarian tissues, 7 (21%) were positive for HBsAg, of which 2 (28%) showed HBsAg in ovarian follicles and the 2 corresponding infants (100%) had intrauterine HBV infection.

          Conclusions/Significance

          HBsAg expression in cells of the ovarian follicle or placental capillary endothelium signal a higher risk for intrauterine HBV infection.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Exome sequencing of hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

          Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and shows a propensity to metastasize and infiltrate adjacent and more distant tissues. HCC is associated with multiple risk factors, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which is especially prevalent in China. Here, we used exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in ten HBV-positive individuals with HCC with portal vein tumor thromboses (PVTTs), intrahepatic metastases. Both C:G>A:T and T:A>A:T transversions were frequently found among the 331 non-silent mutations. Notably, ARID1A, which encodes a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, was mutated in 14 of 110 (13%) HBV-associated HCC specimens. We used RNA interference to assess the roles of 91 of the confirmed mutated genes in cellular survival. The results suggest that seven of these genes, including VCAM1 and CDK14, may confer growth and infiltration capacity to HCC cells. This study provides a view of the landscape of somatic mutations that may be implicated in advanced HCC.
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            Effect of hepatitis B immunoglobulin on interruption of HBV intrauterine infection.

             Rong Li,  Hui Shen,  Feng Shi (2004)
            To evaluate the efficacy of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) in interrupting hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine infection during late pregnancy. We allocated 112 HBsAg positive pregnant women into 2 groups randomly. Fifty seven cases in the HBIG group received 200 IU (unit) HBIG intramuscularly every 4 wk from the 28 wk of gestation to the time of delivery, while 55 cases in the control group received no special treatment. HBsAg, HBeAg, HBcAb, HBeAb, HBsAb and HBV DNA levels were tested in the peripheral blood specimens from all of the mothers at 28 wk of gestation, just before delivery, and in blood from their newborns within 24 h before administration of immune prophylaxis. The intrauterine infection rate in HBIG group and control group were 10.5% and 27.3%, respectively, with significant difference (P or =10(8) copies/mL.
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              Relationship of hepatitis B virus infection of placental barrier and hepatitis B virus intra-uterine transmission mechanism.

              To explore the mechanism of intra-uterine transmission, the HBV infection status of placental tissue and in vitro cultured placental trophoblastic cells was tested through in vivo and in vitro experiments. A variety of methods, such as ELISA, RT-PCR, IHC staining and immunofluorescent staining were employed to test the HBV marker positive pregnant women's placenta and in vitro cultured placental trophoblastic cells. The HBV DNA levels in pregnant women's serum and fetal cord blood were correlated. For those cord blood samples positive for HBV DNA, their maternal blood levels of HBV DNA were at a high level. The HBsAg IHC staining positive cells could be seen in the placental tissues and the presence of HBV DNA detected. After co-incubating the trophoblastic cells and HBV DNA positive serum in vitro, the expressions of both HBsAg and HBV DNA could be detected. The mechanism of HBV intra-uterine infection may be due to that HBV breaches the placental barrier and infects the fetus.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2013
                31 January 2013
                : 8
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yixing People’s Hospital, Yixing, Jiangsu Province, China
                [3 ]Department of Infectious Diseases, Second Affiliated Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China
                The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: MMY QJ XJG. Performed the experiments: LLJ YJ. Analyzed the data: KHW HXJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KHW. Wrote the paper: MMY QJ.

                Article
                PONE-D-12-21356
                10.1371/journal.pone.0054246
                3561336
                23382883

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Funding
                This work was supported by Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. BK2008070). We are grateful to associate professor Lanxia Liu and Hongmei Zhang in our hospital. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine
                Epidemiology
                Infectious Disease Epidemiology
                Pediatric Epidemiology
                Gastroenterology and Hepatology
                Liver Diseases
                Infectious Hepatitis
                Hepatitis B
                Liver Disease and Pregnancy
                Infectious Diseases
                Viral Diseases
                Hepatitis
                Hepatitis B
                Obstetrics and Gynecology
                Management of High-Risk Pregnancies

                Uncategorized

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