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      Why do female expatriates “fit‐in” better than males? : An analysis of self‐transcendence and socio‐cultural adjustment

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      Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal
      Emerald

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          The purpose of the paper is to assess the relevance of the personal value called self‐transcendence as an explanatory factor regarding gender differences in the socio‐cultural adjustment of expatriate employees.

          Design/methodology/approach

          A sample of 37 male and 31 female expatriates responded to an online questionnaire concerning their self‐transcendence value and their adjustment as expatriate employees.

          Findings

          Self‐transcendence of the expatriate predicted interactional and work adjustment. Perceived expatriate‐local difference in self‐transcendence was a negative predictor of work and interactional adjustment. Females had higher (non‐significant) self‐transcendence than males. Further gender differences in the impact of self‐transcendence and perceived expatriate‐local differences in self‐transcendence were found.

          Research limitations/implications

          Further research into the effect of expatriate levels of the personal value of self‐transcendence, its two components, universalism and benevolence, and gender differences therein appears warranted. Statistical techniques to establish causality should be used.

          Practical implications

          Knowledge regarding the self‐transcendence values of candidates for expatriate assignments may assist global human resource managers to make more effective selection decisions regarding expatriate assignments.

          Originality/value

          The study described in this paper is among the first to assess potential explanations for the better interactional and work adjustment of female expatriates compared to males. This study replicates earlier findings regarding the relationship between perceived expatriate‐local differences in self‐transcendence and expatriate socio‐cultural adjustment and provides new knowledge regarding gender differences in this relationship.

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          Most cited references64

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          Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries

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            Are There Universal Aspects in the Structure and Contents of Human Values?

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              Sex differences in value priorities: cross-cultural and multimethod studies.

              The authors assess sex differences in the importance of 10 basic values as guiding principles. Findings from 127 samples in 70 countries (N = 77,528) reveal that men attribute consistently more importance than women do to power, stimulation, hedonism, achievement, and self-direction values; the reverse is true for benevolence and universalism values and less consistently for security values. The sexes do not differ on tradition and conformity values. Sex differences are small (median d = .15; maximum d = .32 [power]) and typically explain less variance than age and much less than culture. Culture moderates all sex differences and sample type and measurement instrument have minor influences. The authors discuss compatibility of findings with evolutionary psychology and sex role theory and propose an agenda for future research. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal
                Emerald
                1352-7606
                May 03 2011
                May 03 2011
                : 18
                : 2
                : 144-164
                Article
                10.1108/13527601111125996
                2b3c34c2-23fb-44c4-a873-b6ecd6807775
                © 2011

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