The effect of a new long-acting somatostatin analog SMS 201–995 (SMS) on hormonal mechanisms controlling the glucose metabolism was tested in 8 type I diabetics over a 3-day period. In addition to dietary measures and conventional insulin therapy, the patients received a subcutaneous dose of 50 µg SMS three times daily for 3 days. Serum growth hormone (GH) was measured at various intervals throughout the investigational period. Glucagon, somatomedin C (SM-C), triiodothyronine, thyroxine, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL) were also determined before and at the end of the therapy with SMS. Basal GH and plasma SM-C had decreased significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively) by the 3rd day. In all cases the insulin requirements could be reduced (mean 28%) without deterioration of the metabolic control. Moreover, blood glucose profiles showed a tendency to lower postprandial peaks after SMS treatment. Glucagon, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, LH, FSH and PRL showed no significant changes. No side effects or alterations in laboratory chemistries were recorded. Dampening of glucose oscillations and counterregulatory mechanisms, and reduction of insulin dosage by SMS may enable a better control of unstable diabetes. Its slow plasma clearance and long action compared to the native peptide will warrant the use of this analog as an additive to standard diabetes therapy in more prolonged trials.