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      Esrp1 is a marker of mouse fetal germ cells and differentially expressed during spermatogenesis

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          Abstract

          ESRP1 regulates alternative splicing, producing multiple transcripts from its target genes in epithelial tissues. It is upregulated during mesenchymal to epithelial transition associated with reprogramming of fibroblasts to iPS cells and has been linked to pluripotency. Mouse fetal germ cells are the founders of the adult gonadal lineages and we found that Esrp1 mRNA was expressed in both male and female germ cells but not in gonadal somatic cells at various stages of gonadal development (E12.5-E15.5). In the postnatal testis, Esrp1 mRNA was highly expressed in isolated cell preparations enriched for spermatogonia but expressed at lower levels in those enriched for pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. Co-labelling experiments with PLZF and c-KIT showed that ESRP1 was localized to nuclei of both Type A and B spermatogonia in a speckled pattern, but was not detected in SOX9 + somatic Sertoli cells. No co-localization with the nuclear speckle marker, SC35, which has been associated with post-transcriptional splicing, was observed, suggesting that ESRP1 may be associated with co-transcriptional splicing or have other functions. RNA interference mediated knockdown of Esrp1 expression in the seminoma-derived Tcam-2 cell line demonstrated that ESRP1 regulates alternative splicing of mRNAs in a non-epithelial cell germ cell tumour cell line.

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          Most cited references39

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          Essential role of Plzf in maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells.

          Little is known of the molecular mechanisms whereby spermatogonia, mitotic germ cells of the testis, self-renew and differentiate into sperm. Here we show that Zfp145, encoding the transcriptional repressor Plzf, has a crucial role in spermatogenesis. Zfp145 expression was restricted to gonocytes and undifferentiated spermatogonia and was absent in tubules of W/W(v) mutants that lack these cells. Mice lacking Zfp145 underwent a progressive loss of spermatogonia with age, associated with increases in apoptosis and subsequent loss of tubule structure but without overt differentiation defects or loss of the supporting Sertoli cells. Spermatogonial transplantation experiments revealed a depletion of spermatogonial stem cells in the adult. Microarray analysis of isolated spermatogonia from Zfp145-null mice before testis degeneration showed alterations in the expression profile of genes associated with spermatogenesis. These results identify Plzf as a spermatogonia-specific transcription factor in the testis that is required to regulate self-renewal and maintenance of the stem cell pool.
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            Plzf is required in adult male germ cells for stem cell self-renewal.

            Adult germline stem cells are capable of self-renewal, tissue regeneration and production of large numbers of differentiated progeny. We show here that the classical mouse mutant luxoid affects adult germline stem cell self-renewal. Young homozygous luxoid mutant mice produce limited numbers of normal spermatozoa and then progressively lose their germ line after birth. Transplantation studies showed that germ cells from mutant mice did not colonize recipient testes, suggesting that the defect is intrinsic to the stem cells. We determined that the luxoid mutant contains a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding Plzf, a transcriptional repressor that regulates the epigenetic state of undifferentiated cells, and showed that Plzf is coexpressed with Oct4 in undifferentiated spermatogonia. This is the first gene shown to be required in germ cells for stem cell self-renewal in mammals.
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              Pluripotency of spermatogonial stem cells from adult mouse testis.

              Embryonic germ cells as well as germline stem cells from neonatal mouse testis are pluripotent and have differentiation potential similar to embryonic stem cells, suggesting that the germline lineage may retain the ability to generate pluripotent cells. However, until now there has been no evidence for the pluripotency and plasticity of adult spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are responsible for maintaining spermatogenesis throughout life in the male. Here we show the isolation of SSCs from adult mouse testis using genetic selection, with a success rate of 27%. These isolated SSCs respond to culture conditions and acquire embryonic stem cell properties. We name these cells multipotent adult germline stem cells (maGSCs). They are able to spontaneously differentiate into derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers in vitro and generate teratomas in immunodeficient mice. When injected into an early blastocyst, SSCs contribute to the development of various organs and show germline transmission. Thus, the capacity to form multipotent cells persists in adult mouse testis. Establishment of human maGSCs from testicular biopsies may allow individual cell-based therapy without the ethical and immunological problems associated with human embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, these cells may provide new opportunities to study genetic diseases in various cell lineages.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Investigation
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                11 January 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia
                [2 ] School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia
                [3 ] Centre for Genetic Diseases, Hudson Institute of Medical Research and Department of Molecular and Translational Science, Monash University, Clayton, Australia
                [4 ] School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia
                [5 ] School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
                [6 ] School of Biosciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia
                National Cancer Institute, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                ‡ These authors are joint senior authors on this work.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-26856
                10.1371/journal.pone.0190925
                5764326
                29324788
                2ceb1972-754e-41de-b1de-b84c16fe8e4b
                © 2018 Saeidi et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, Pages: 15
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: School of Biological Sciences, University of Melbourne
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000923, Australian Research Council;
                Award ID: DP170102379
                Award Recipient :
                These studies were supported by funds provided to MF by the School of Biosciences, University of Melbourne and by an Australian Research Council Discovery Project Grant DP170102379 to GH.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Types
                Animal Cells
                Germ Cells
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Types
                Animal Cells
                Germ Cells
                Sperm
                Spermatogonia
                Biology and life sciences
                Genetics
                Gene expression
                Gene regulation
                Small interfering RNAs
                Biology and life sciences
                Biochemistry
                Nucleic acids
                RNA
                Non-coding RNA
                Small interfering RNAs
                Biology and life sciences
                Genetics
                Gene expression
                RNA processing
                Alternative Splicing
                Biology and life sciences
                Biochemistry
                Nucleic acids
                RNA
                RNA processing
                Alternative Splicing
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Types
                Animal Cells
                Germ Cells
                Sperm
                Spermatids
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Types
                Animal Cells
                Germ Cells
                Sperm
                Spermatocytes
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Gene Expression
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Immunologic Techniques
                Immunoassays
                Immunofluorescence
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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                Uncategorized

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