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      Bioavailability of Vitamin B 12 from Dairy Products Using a Pig Model

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      Nutrients

      MDPI

      bioavailability, dairy, pig model, vitamin B12

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          Abstract

          The present study compares the bioavailability of vitamin B 12 (B 12) of dairy products or synthetic B 12, using the pig as an experimental model for humans. Eleven pigs were used in a cross-over design to assess the net portal drained viscera (PDV) flux of blood plasma B 12 after ingestion of tofu (TF; devoid of B 12), Swiss cheese (SC), Cheddar cheese (CC), yogurt (YG), and synthetic B 12 (TB 12; TF supplemented with cyanocobalamin), providing a total of 25 µg of B 12 each. PDV blood plasma flow for SC and CC were higher than for TF and TB 12 ( p ≤ 0.04) whereas YG was higher than TF ( p = 0.05). Porto-arterial difference of blood plasma B 12 concentrations were higher for CC and TB 12 than for TF and YG ( p ≤ 0.04) but not different from SC ( p ≥ 0.15). Net PDV flux of B 12 was only different from zero for CC. However, the net PDV flux of B 12 for CC was not different from SC or TB 12. Cumulative net PDV flux of B 12 for SC, TB 12, and CC were 2.9, 4.4, and 8.3 µg 23 h post-meal, corresponding to a bioavailability of 11.6%, 17.5%, and 33.0%, respectively. In conclusion, CC had the best bioavailability of B 12 among the tested dairy products or compared to synthetic B 12.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Microbial production of vitamin B12.

           Robin Warren,  H Barg,  D Jahn (2002)
          One of the most alluring and fascinating molecules in the world of science and medicine is vitamin B12 (cobalamin), which was originally discovered as the anti pernicious anemia factor and whose enigmatic complex structure is matched only by the beguiling chemistry that it mediates. The biosynthesis of this essential nutrient is intricate, involved and, remarkably, confined to certain members of the prokaryotic world, seemingly never have to have made the eukaryotic transition. In humans, the vitamin is required in trace amounts (approximately 1 microg/day) to assist the actions of only two enzymes, methionine synthase and (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase; yet commercially more than 10 t of B12 are produced each year from a number of bacterial species. The rich scientific history of vitamin B12 research, its biological functions and the pathways employed by bacteria for its de novo synthesis are described. Current strategies for the improvement of vitamin B12 production using modern biotechnological techniques are outlined.
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            Nutritional programming of gastrointestinal tract development. Is the pig a good model for man?

            The consequences of early-life nutritional programming in man and other mammalian species have been studied chiefly at the metabolic level. Very few studies, if any, have been performed in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) as the target organ, but extensive GIT studies are needed since the GIT plays a key role in nutrient supply and has an impact on functions of the entire organism. The possible deleterious effects of nutritional programming at the metabolic level were discovered following epidemiological studies in human subjects, and confirmed in animal models. Investigating the impact of programming on GIT structure and function would need appropriate animal models due to ethical restrictions in the use of human subjects. The aim of the present review is to discuss the use of pigs as an animal model as a compromise between ethically acceptable animal studies and the requirement of data which can be interpolated to the human situation. In nutritional programming studies, rodents are the most frequently used model for man, but GIT development and digestive function in rodents are considerably different from those in man. In that aspect, the pig GIT is much closer to the human than that of rodents. The swine species is closely comparable with man in many nutritional and digestive aspects, and thus provides ample opportunity to be used in investigations on the consequences of nutritional programming for the GIT. In particular, the 'sow-piglets' dyad could be a useful tool to simulate the 'human mother-infant' dyad in studies which examine short-, middle- and long-term effects and is suggested as the reference model.
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              Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in the general population: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study.

              Limited information is available on the association between vitamin B-12 status and intake from different dietary sources. We investigated the relation of dietary intake of different food items with plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in the general population. A cross-sectional, population-based study of 5937 subjects in 2 age groups (47-49 and 71-74 y) from the Hordaland Homocysteine Study in Norway was conducted by using a food-frequency questionnaire and measurements of plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations. A significant difference in plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations was observed with increasing total vitamin B-12 intake. A plateau was reached at an intake of approximately 10 microg/d. Plasma vitamin B-12 was associated with intakes of increasing amounts of vitamin B-12 from dairy products or fish (P for trend 0.27 micromol/L) in the total group and in 71-74-y-old subjects. Dietary intake of dairy products and fish are significant contributors to plasma vitamin B-12 and may improve plasma vitamin B-12 status. Vitamin B-12 appears to be more bioavailable from dairy products; guidelines for improving vitamin B-12 status should take this into consideration.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                21 August 2018
                September 2018
                : 10
                : 9
                Affiliations
                Sherbrooke Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, QC J1M 0C8, Canada; danyel.buenodalto@ 123456agr.gc.ca (D.B.D.); isabelle.audet@ 123456agr.gc.ca (I.A.); christiane.girard@ 123456agr.gc.ca (C.L.G.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jacques.matte@ 123456agr.gc.ca ; Tel.: +1-819-564-5507
                Article
                nutrients-10-01134
                10.3390/nu10091134
                6163222
                30134590
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                vitamin b12, pig model, dairy, bioavailability

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