ABSTRACT Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 is an endemic species of the Atlantic Forest that occurs from south Bahia, Brazil, extending south to the province of Misiones, Argentina. In Rio de Janeiro state, the species was classified as threatened, indicating that attention is needed for the conservation of this taxon. Additionally, an outbreak of yellow fever spread throughout the southeastern states of Brazil from January 2017 until March 2018 seriously threatening Rio de Janeiro populations of the species. Herein, we aimed to provide the first estimates of A. g. clamitans encounter rate, density, and population size in the Ilha Grande State Park (PEIG), which is part of the Atlantic Forest biome of Brazil. Data were collected in two different periods, the first between December 2003 and May 2005, and the second from August 2009 to May 2010, and information on encounter rates and behavior was collected to better understand aspects of species’ ecology. The estimated encounter rate in the first period through the distance sampling method was 0.04 ± 0.01 individuals per kilometer. Nine groups were recorded in the second period of the study, with 47 individuals along 3 km. Our estimates of encounter rate, density and population size were low and reinforces the need to initiate species monitoring and assess the impact that yellow fever outbreaks may have on PEIG populations. The results presented here can be a starting point to support future strategic actions for the species, to measure impacts and to the management of the species, and for a conservation program.