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      O balanço de carbono da Amazônia brasileira

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          Abstract

          GLOBALMENTE, a biota terrestre é um sumidouro significativo de dióxido de carbono (CO2) atmosférico. Estudos recentes do IPCC para a década de 1990 estimam a biota terrestre com sendo um sumidouro líquido de aproximadamente 1,4 gigatonelada de carbono por ano (assimilação líquida pela biota terrestre menos as emissões devidas às mudanças dos usos da terra). É provável que a maior parte desse suposto sumidouro aconteça nas florestas das latitudes médias e dos trópicos. Estudos do ciclo do carbono do Experimento LBA estão mostrando que as florestas não-perturbadas da Amazônia comportam-se com um forte sumidouro de carbono, com taxas na faixa de 1 a 7 toneladas por hectare por ano, ao passo que as áreas inundadas e os rios podem estar agindo como fonte de carbono de até 1,2 tonelada por hectare por ano. O desmatamento e a queima de biomassa representam uma emissão líquida de aproximadamente 0,2 gigatonelada de carbono por ano na Amazônia brasileira. Ainda que se leve em conta as grandes incertezas existentes sobre essas medidas, o balanço das evidências observacionais aponta para a possibilidade de que as florestas tropicais da América do Sul estejam funcionando como sumidouros de carbono da atmosfera.

          Translated abstract

          GLOBALLY, the terrestrial biota acts as a significant carbon sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The most recent estimate from IPCC for the 1990's puts the terrestrial biota at a net sink of 1.4 gigaton of carbon per year (net carbon uptake by the biota minus emissions from land use changes). It is likely that most of this presumed sink takes place in mid-latitude and tropical forests. Carbon cycle studies in the LBA Experiment indicate that the undisturbed forest of Amazonia may be a strong sink of carbon, at rates from 1 to 7 tons per hectare per year, whereas the wetlands may act as a source of carbon into the atmosphere of up to 1.2 ton per hectare per year. Deforestation and biomass burning in Brazilian Amazonia alone account for a net carbon dioxide emission of about 0,2 gigaton of carbon per year. Notwithstanding the still large uncertainties of these estimates, the balance of observational evidence points to the possibility that the tropical forests of South America function as a sink of carbon from the atmosphere.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Annual fluxes of carbon from deforestation and regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon.

          The distribution of sources and sinks of carbon among the world's ecosystems is uncertain. Some analyses show northern mid-latitude lands to be a large sink, whereas the tropics are a net source; other analyses show the tropics to be nearly neutral, whereas northern mid-latitudes are a small sink. Here we show that the annual flux of carbon from deforestation and abandonment of agricultural lands in the Brazilian Amazon was a source of about 0.2 Pg Cyr(-1) over the period 1989-1998 (1 Pg is 10(15) g). This estimate is based on annual rates of deforestation and spatially detailed estimates of deforestation, regrowing forests and biomass. Logging may add another 5-10% to this estimate, and fires may double the magnitude of the source in years following a drought. The annual source of carbon from land-use change and fire approximately offsets the sink calculated for natural ecosystems in the region. Thus this large area of tropical forest is nearly balanced with respect to carbon, but has an interannual variability of +/- 0.2 PgC yr(-1).
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            Carbon dioxide transfer over a Central Amazonian rain forest

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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Reconstructing the recent carbon cycle from atmospheric CO2, δ13C and O2/N2 observations

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                ea
                Estudos Avançados
                Estud. av.
                Instituto de Estudos Avançados da Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo )
                1806-9592
                August 2002
                : 16
                : 45
                : 81-90
                S0103-40142002000200006
                10.1590/S0103-40142002000200006

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                CULTURAL STUDIES
                SOCIAL SCIENCES, INTERDISCIPLINARY

                Sociology, Cultural studies

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