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      Comparison of Episodic Memory in Students Suffering with Cerebral Palsy and Normal Students (Original paper)

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          The epidemiology of cerebral palsy: incidence, impairments and risk factors.

          Describing the epidemiology of cerebral palsy (CP), its impairments and risk factors. Literature review 1965-2004. Search terms: Cerebral palsy, incidence, prevalence, impairments, risk factors. In the last 40 years the prevalence of CP has risen to well above 2.0 per 1000 life births. In this time span the proportion of low-birthweight infants rose, the proportion of diplegia decreased, while the proportion of hemiplegia increased. CP is more prevalent in more deprived socio-economic populations. The majority of people with CP have the spastic syndrome of which the diplegic group is the smallest. Dependent on the subgroup of CP, 25-80% have additional impairments. A large proportion has some kind of cognitive impairment; the prevalence varies with the type of CP and especially increases when epilepsy is present. Epilepsy is present in 20-40%; it is most common among the hemi- and tetraplegics. Sensibility of the hands is impaired in about half. Chronic pain is reported by more than a quarter of the adults. Up to 80% have at least some impairment of speech. Low visual acuity is reported in almost three-quarters of all children. Half of all children have gastrointestinal and feeding problems. Stunted growth occurs in a quarter, while under- or overweight problems are present in half of the children. Almost 70% of people with spastic CP have abnormal brain CT findings; abnormal cranial ultrasounds is most strongly associated with hemiplegia, normal cranial ultrasounds with diplegia. The most important risk factors for CP are low birthweight, intrauterine infections and multiple gestation.
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            Children with spastic cerebral palsy, their cognitive functioning, and social participation: a review.

             L. Böttcher (2009)
            White matter lesions are often seen in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Evidence points to specific impairment of attentional, visuospatial, and executive functions; although both attention and executive functions are relatively unexplored in spastic CP. The few recent studies on language functions in mild or moderate CP point to well-functioning language. The presence of specific cognitive impairments may, in part, explain why children with spastic CP have a higher risk of learning disabilities and problems in peer relations. However, to understand the development of cognitive impairments, it is necessary to include how social participation feeds back on cognitive processes.
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              Attentional and executive impairments in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

              Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function. We examined attention and executive function with standardized neuropsychological measures in a group of children with unilateral (n=15) or bilateral (n=18) spastic CP (14 females, 19 males, mean age 11y 4mo, SD 1y 1mo, range 9y 1mo-13y 7mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I n=22, II n=3, III n=6, and IV n=2). Performance was compared with test norms. Verbal cognitive functioning fell within the normal range, whereas sustained (p=0.001) and divided attention (p<0.001) were found to be impaired. Greater impairment was observed in executive function in general (p<0.001) and in inhibition (p=0.038) and shifting (p<0.001) in particular. No significant difference was found between types of CP (unilateral and bilateral). Performance of all timed tasks was slower than the test norm (p<0.00). The finding of slower performances across tasks may indicate a general impairment in efficiency of information processing in relation to white-matter lesions. Impairments in attention and executive functions are present in children with CP and may help to explain why these children have increased social and learning problems.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention
                CSWHI
                Journal of Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention
                2222386X
                20769741
                October 20 2017
                October 20 2017
                : 8
                : 3
                : 21-27
                Article
                10.22359/cswhi_8_3_04
                © 2017

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