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      Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in selected patients is superior to the conventional approach for patients with severely depressed left ventricular function

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVES:

          Patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction have high mortality when kept in clinical treatment. Coronary artery bypass grafting can improve survival and the quality of life. Recently, revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass has been presented as a viable alternative. The aim of this study is to compare patients with left ventricular ejection fractions of less than 20% who underwent coronary artery bypass graft with or without cardiopulmonary bypass.

          METHODS:

          From January 2001 to December 2005, 217 nonrandomized, consecutive, and nonselected patients with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 20% underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery with (112) or without (off-pump) (105) the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. We studied demographic, operative, and postoperative data.

          RESULTS:

          There were no demographic differences between groups. The outcome variables showed similar graft numbers in both groups. Mortality was 12.5% in the cardiopulmonary bypass group and 3.8% in the off-pump group. Postoperative complications were statistically different (cardiopulmonary bypass versus off-pump): total length of hospital stay (days)—11.3 vs. 7.2, length of ICU stay (days)—3.7 vs. 2.1, pulmonary complications—10.7% vs. 2.8%, intubation time (hours)—22 vs. 10, postoperative bleeding (mL)—654 vs. 440, acute renal failure—8.9% vs. 1.9% and left-ventricle ejection fraction before discharge—22% vs. 29%.

          CONCLUSION:

          Coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass in selected patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction is valid and safe and promotes less mortality and morbidity compared with conventional operations.

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          Most cited references 80

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          Results of coronary artery surgery in patients with poor left ventricular function (CASS).

          We identified 420 medically treated and 231 surgically treated patients (coronary graft plus myocardial surgery in 30%) who had severe left ventricular dysfunction manifest by an ejection fraction below 0.36 and markedly abnormal wall motion. Compared with medically treated patients, those treated surgically had more severe angina (56.7% vs 29.0% class III or IV; p less than .001), less heart failure as predominant symptom (11.1% vs 18.8%; p less than .003), more severe coronary disease (66.7% vs 50.2% three-vessel disease; p less than .001), a greater concentration of left main coronary artery lesions greater than 70% (12.6% vs 3.8%: p less than .001), and a greater estimated extent of jeopardized myocardium (p less than .001). Multivariate regression analysis of survival, which adjusts for the above covariates, showed that surgical treatment prolonged survival (p less than .05), although it ranked below severity of heart failure symptoms, age, ejection fraction, and left main stenosis greater than 70% in determining prognosis. Surgical benefit was most apparent for patients with ejection fractions below 0.26 who had a 43% 5 year survival with medical treatment vs 63% with surgery. Surgically treated patients experienced substantial symptomatic benefit compared with medically treated patients if their presenting symptoms were predominantly angina; however, there was no relief of symptoms caused primarily by heart failure. We conclude that patients with predominantly ischemic pain symptoms, despite poor left ventricular function, benefit from surgery; however, operative mortality in this high-risk subset must equal or better the 6.9% obtained in this study.
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            On-pump beating heart versus off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery-evidence of pump-induced myocardial injury.

            By maintaining native coronary blood flow in on-pump beating heart surgery (OnP-BH) and comparing with OPCAB strategy pump-related effects on myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction could be specifically differentiated from ischemia/reperfusion-related consequences of surgical coronary revascularization. In a randomized-prospective design, 40 elective patients with normal EF and three vessels coronary artery disease (left main disease excluded) were assigned to OPCAB or OnP-BH surgery. Before coronary occlusion and 1, 30, 60, and 90 min after reperfusion with the LIMA graft, coronary sinus (CS) blood was sampled to determine intraoperative myocardial ischemia (pH, lactate, pO2) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, MDA). Additionally to CS blood arterial blood was analyzed 4, 12, and 24 h postoperatively to determine myocardial necrosis (CK-MB, cardiac troponin I), myocardial dysfunction (NT-proBNP) and inflammation (C-reactive protein). Groups were identical with regards to age and gender (OPCAB 63.0+/-6.0 versus OnP-BH 65.3+/-3.9 y, 20% female patients). Number of grafts were 3.0+/-0.5 in OPCAB versus 2.9+/-0.3 in OnP-BH (n.s.) with 44 versus 34% bilateral IMAs and 56 versus 50% complete arterial revascularization. Regarding ischemia, intraoperatively only lactate values increased significantly in the OnP-BH group. Significantly higher CK-MB and troponin I levels were found from LIMA-LAD flow release onwards to 4 h postoperatively in the OnP-BH group. NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in the OnP-BH group during the entire study period. CRP levels were higher in the OnP-BH group 12 and 24 h postoperatively. In this randomized study on routine coronary patients with normal ventricular function, OPCAB revealed less myocardial injury than OnP-BH. These findings implicate that CPB slightly affects the myocardium.
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              Off-pump surgery is associated with reduced occurrence of stroke and other morbidity as compared with traditional coronary artery bypass grafting: a meta-analysis of systematically reviewed trials.

              There is growing enthusiasm for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although deleterious effects of CPB are known, it remains to be proven that avoiding CPB will result in reduction in morbidity. We sought to determine whether off-pump surgery is associated with reduced occurrence of adverse outcomes as compared with CABG with CPB. Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Register 1980 to 2006 (February). We also searched the reference lists of randomized clinical trials (RCT) and reviews to look for additional studies. RCTs comparing off-pump surgery to CABG with CPB. No restriction applied on the size of the trial or end point reports. 2 reviewers independently searched for studies, read abstracts and abstracted all data. combined estimates were obtained using fixed or random effect meta-analyses. Relative risks and risk differences were calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed using chi(2) and I(2) values. There were 3996 patients enrolled in 41 RCTs (mean age 62, 22% female). No study reported information on race. Off-pump CABG was associated with a 50% reduction in the relative risk of stroke (95% CI, 7% to 73%), 30% reduction in atrial fibrillation (AF; 95% CI, 16% to 43%) and 48% reduction in wound infection (95% CI, 26% to 63%) with no heterogeneity among RCTs. This translated into avoidance of 10 strokes, 80 cases of AF and 40 infections per 1000 CABG. Fewer distal grafts were performed and there was evidence for >10 reinterventions per 1000 with off-pump CABG. Long-term follow-up is not yet reported in the trials. Off-pump CABG is associated with reduced risk of stroke, AF and infections as compared with CABG with CPB. Evidence should be generalized taking into account RCT enrollment limitations, drawbacks related to training requirements, propensity to perform fewer grafts and likely reinterventions after off-pump surgery.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinics (Sao Paulo)
                Clinics
                Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
                1807-5932
                1980-5322
                December 2011
                : 66
                : 12
                : 2049-2053
                Affiliations
                Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Cardiovascular Surgery, São Paulo/SP, Brazil.
                Author notes

                Caputti GM was one of the operating surgeon, also responsible for the research conduction, data collection, and revision and writing of the manuscript. Palma JH was one of the operating surgeon, also responsible for the revision and writing of the manucript. Gaia DF was responsible for the data collection, revision and writing of the manuscript. Buffolo E was one of the operating surgeon, also responsible for the research conduction and revision of the manuscript.

                E-mail: drgaia@ 123456terra.com.br Tel.: 55 11 55764055
                Article
                cln_66p2049
                10.1590/S1807-59322011001200009
                3226599
                22189729
                Copyright © 2011 Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 5
                Categories
                Clinical Science

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