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      Cytoprotective effects of molsidomine against methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity: an experimental rat study

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          Abstract

          Introduction and aim

          Methotrexate (Mtx) is an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drug that may cause hepatotoxicity, whereas molsidomine (Mol) is a vasodilating and antioxidant agent. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Mol in Mtx-induced liver toxicity in rats.

          Materials and methods

          Forty Wistar albino rats were equally divided into five groups: control, Mol, Mtx, Mol–Mtx, and Mtx–Mol. Following treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and liver tissue samples were histopathologically evaluated using Roening grading and Bcl-2 antibody staining. Tissue oxidants, antioxidants, and serum transaminases were measured and statistically compared across all groups.

          Results

          No hepatic fibrosis or steatosis was observed in any of the groups. In the Mtx group, grade 2 liver injury and score 2 Bcl-2 antibody staining were observed; however, in the Mol–Mtx group, these were lower (grade 1, score 1). There were no statistically significant differences in serum transaminase levels among groups. Malondialdehyde levels were higher in all rats that received Mtx, but no differences in myeloperoxidase levels were observed among the groups. Levels of tissue antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced GSH, were significantly higher in the Mol-treated and Mol pre-treated groups. Catalase (CAT) levels were elevated in all Mol-treated groups, but only in that group were CAT levels statistically significantly higher than in the control group.

          Conclusion

          Our results suggest that some oxidant levels could increase following Mtx administration in the liver, possibly contributing to liver damage, whereas Mol could mitigate the histopathological and biochemical effects of hepatotoxicity. However, molecular studies are required to understand the exact mechanisms of these alterations.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Superoxide dismutases: role in redox signaling, vascular function, and diseases.

          Excessive reactive oxygen species Revised abstract, especially superoxide anion (O₂•-), play important roles in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and atherosclerosis. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the major antioxidant defense systems against (O₂•-), which consist of three isoforms of SOD in mammals: the cytoplasmic Cu/ZnSOD (SOD1), the mitochondrial MnSOD (SOD2), and the extracellular Cu/ZnSOD (SOD3), all of which require catalytic metal (Cu or Mn) for their activation. Recent evidence suggests that in each subcellular location, SODs catalyze the conversion of (O₂•-), H2O2, which may participate in cell signaling. In addition, SODs play a critical role in inhibiting oxidative inactivation of nitric oxide, thereby preventing peroxynitrite formation and endothelial and mitochondrial dysfunction. The importance of each SOD isoform is further illustrated by studies from the use of genetically altered mice and viral-mediated gene transfer. Given the essential role of SODs in cardiovascular disease, the concept of antioxidant therapies, that is, reinforcement of endogenous antioxidant defenses to more effectively protect against oxidative stress, is of substantial interest. However, the clinical evidence remains controversial. In this review, we will update the role of each SOD in vascular biologies, physiologies, and pathophysiologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and angiogenesis. Because of the importance of metal cofactors in the activity of SODs, we will also discuss how each SOD obtains catalytic metal in the active sites. Finally, we will discuss the development of future SOD-dependent therapeutic strategies.
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            A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase.

            This assay for superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity involves inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, with xanthine-xanthine oxidase used as a superoxide generator. By using a reaction terminator, we can determine 40 samples within 55 min. One unit of activity of pure bovine liver Cu,ZnSOD and chicken liver MnSOD was expressed by 30 ng and 500 ng of protein, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cu,ZnSOD as measured by this method in blood from normal adults were 242 (SEM 4) mg/L in erythrocytes, 548 (SEM 20) micrograms/L in serum, and 173 (SEM 11) micrograms/L in plasma. The Cu,ZnSOD concentrations in serum and plasma of patients with cancer of the large intestine tended to be less and greater than these values, respectively, but not statistically significantly so.
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              Myeloperoxidase: A New Biomarker of Inflammation in Ischemic Heart Disease and Acute Coronary Syndromes

              Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an enzyme stored in azurophilic granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages and released into extracellular fluid in the setting of inflammatory process. The observation that myeloperoxidase is involved in oxidative stress and inflammation has been a leading factor to study myeloperoxidase as a possible marker of plaque instability and a useful clinical tool in the evaluation of patients with coronary heart disease. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the pathophysiological, analytical, and clinical characteristics of MPO and to summarize the state of art about the possible clinical use of MPO as a marker for diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2019
                20 December 2018
                : 13
                : 13-21
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pathology, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey, esamdanci@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey
                [3 ]Department of Physiology, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey
                [4 ]Department of Statistics, Fırat University Faculty of Science, Elazığ, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Emine Turkmen Samdanci, Department of Pathology, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey, Tel +90 539 290 2907, Email esamdanci@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-13-013
                10.2147/DDDT.S181550
                6304250
                © 2019 Samdanci et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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