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      Exercise addiction risk and health in male and female amateur endurance cyclists

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          To determine the relationship between the risk of exercise addiction (REA) and health status in amateur endurance cyclists.

          Methods

          In 859 (751 men and 108 women) cyclists and 718 inactive subjects (307 men and 411 women), we examined the REA (Exercise Addiction Inventory), training status (volume, frequency, experience, and performance), socioeconomic status, quality of life (QoL) (SF-12), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and cardiometabolic risk: body mass index, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), physical condition (International Fitness Scale), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener), alcohol and tobacco consumption.

          Results

          In total, 17% of the cyclists showed evidence of REA and 83% showed low REA. REA occurred independent of age, sex, training, and socioeconomic status (all ps > .05). Regardless of REA, the cyclists displayed a better physical QoL and a lower cardiometabolic risk than the inactive subjects (all ps < .05). The cyclists with REA displayed worse values of mental QoL, quality of sleep, and anxiety than cyclists with low REA (all ps < .05). The REA group had better values of mental QoL and anxiety and similar values of quality of sleep than the inactive subjects. The differences in mental QoL between the REA and low REA groups were significantly greater in women ( p = .013). There was no Addiction × Sex interaction in the other analyzed variables.

          Conclusion

          Our results suggest that an increased prevalence of REA limits the benefits that amateur endurance cycling has on mental health and quality of sleep.

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          Most cited references60

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          The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research

          Despite the prevalence of sleep complaints among psychiatric patients, few questionnaires have been specifically designed to measure sleep quality in clinical populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-rated questionnaire which assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a 1-month time interval. Nineteen individual items generate seven "component" scores: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. The sum of scores for these seven components yields one global score. Clinical and clinimetric properties of the PSQI were assessed over an 18-month period with "good" sleepers (healthy subjects, n = 52) and "poor" sleepers (depressed patients, n = 54; sleep-disorder patients, n = 62). Acceptable measures of internal homogeneity, consistency (test-retest reliability), and validity were obtained. A global PSQI score greater than 5 yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.6% and specificity of 86.5% (kappa = 0.75, p less than 0.001) in distinguishing good and poor sleepers. The clinimetric and clinical properties of the PSQI suggest its utility both in psychiatric clinical practice and research activities.
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            International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity.

            Physical inactivity is a global concern, but diverse physical activity measures in use prevent international comparisons. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed as an instrument for cross-national monitoring of physical activity and inactivity. Between 1997 and 1998, an International Consensus Group developed four long and four short forms of the IPAQ instruments (administered by telephone interview or self-administration, with two alternate reference periods, either the "last 7 d" or a "usual week" of recalled physical activity). During 2000, 14 centers from 12 countries collected reliability and/or validity data on at least two of the eight IPAQ instruments. Test-retest repeatability was assessed within the same week. Concurrent (inter-method) validity was assessed at the same administration, and criterion IPAQ validity was assessed against the CSA (now MTI) accelerometer. Spearman's correlation coefficients are reported, based on the total reported physical activity. Overall, the IPAQ questionnaires produced repeatable data (Spearman's rho clustered around 0.8), with comparable data from short and long forms. Criterion validity had a median rho of about 0.30, which was comparable to most other self-report validation studies. The "usual week" and "last 7 d" reference periods performed similarly, and the reliability of telephone administration was similar to the self-administered mode. The IPAQ instruments have acceptable measurement properties, at least as good as other established self-reports. Considering the diverse samples in this study, IPAQ has reasonable measurement properties for monitoring population levels of physical activity among 18- to 65-yr-old adults in diverse settings. The short IPAQ form "last 7 d recall" is recommended for national monitoring and the long form for research requiring more detailed assessment.
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              The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                2006
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                30 March 2017
                March 2016
                : 6
                : 1
                : 74-83
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Section of Physical Education and Sports, University of Zaragoza , Zaragoza, Spain
                [ 2 ]Department of Musical, Plastic and Corporal Expression, University of Zaragoza , Zaragoza, Spain
                [ 3 ]Department of Sports and Computer Science, Section of Physical Education and Sports, University Pablo de Olavide , Seville, Spain
                [ 4 ]Department of Education, University of Jaume I , Castellón, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Dra. Carmen Mayolas-Pi; Section of Physical Education and Sports, University of Zaragoza, Calle Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain; Phone: +34 976761719; Fax: +34 976761720; E-mail: carmayo@ 123456unizar.es
                Article
                10.1556/2006.6.2017.018
                5573003
                28358644
                337bc4f1-851c-4794-930f-cfec4baaef2f
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 08 September 2016
                : 04 March 2017
                : 12 March 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 55, Pages: 10
                Funding
                Funding sources: This work was partially supported by the “Cátedra Real Madrid,” European University of Madrid (project: P2016/19RM).
                Categories
                FULL-LENGTH REPORT

                Medicine,Psychology,Social & Behavioral Sciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                physical activity,endurance training,risk of exercise addiction,quality of life,health,quality of sleep

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