Generating evidence on the dry season occurrence of the larval and adult stage s of Anopheles mosquitoes helps to design effective malaria vector control strategy as the populations of the vectors is expected to be low.
Larval and adult stages of Anopheles were surveyed during dry seasons in Mender Meter, Jiga Yehlmidar and Wongie Berkegn villages, Jabi Tehnan District, West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. Larvae were surveyed (along the available surface water collections), sampled, identified into genus, counted and late instars of the genus Anopheles identified into species. Indoor-resting adult mosquitoes were collected using insecticide aerosol spray, processed and identified into species. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20.0 to determine frequencies, mean differences and associations.
A total of 3127 Anopheles larvae were collected among which most (91.7%; 2869/3127) were from streams followed by ponds (4.3%; 136/3127) and swamps (3.9%; 122/3127). Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was the most prevalent (84.9%; 921/1085) followed by Anopheles cinereus (7.0%; 76/1085), Anopheles chrysti (3.7%; 40/1085), Anopheles demeilloni (2.8%; 30/1085) and Anopheles rhodesiensis (1.6%; 18/1085). The mean number (mean = 15.3) of An. gambiae from Jiga Yehlmidar was significantly (p = 0.024) higher than the corresponding number (mean = 3.2) from Mender Meter. The mean number (mean = 36.3) of An. gambiae larvae in April 2017 was significantly (p = 0.001) higher than the number (mean = 4.0) in December 2013 and the number (mean = 2.6) in March 2013. A total of 1324 adult Anopheles were collected of which the highest proportion (79.1%; 1048/1324) was An. gambiae, followed by An. chrysti (11.7%; 155/1324), An. demeilloni (6%; 80/1324), An. cinereus (2.6%; 35/1324) and Anopheles coustani (0.5%; 6/1324). The highest proportion (54.3%; 569/1048) of the An. gambiae was collected from Wongie Berkegn followed by Jiga Yehlmidar (23.6%; 247/1048) and Mender Meter (22.1%; 232/1048). The mean number (mean = 7.8) of adult An. gambiae caught in Wongie Berkegn was significantly (p = 0.018) higher compared to the number (mean = 3.0) in Mender Meter. No significant difference was observed in the mean number of adult An. gambiae between the seasons.
Streams were prolific breeding habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes followed by ponds and swamps in the dry seasons. In addition, a high population of indoor resting An. gambiae was caught from indoors. This implies the need for a strengthened vector control during dry seasons using breeding habitat management and improved housing in addition to the existing insecticide (LLINs and IRS) based interventions in Jabi Tehnan District, West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia.