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      Dry season occurrence of Anopheles mosquitoes and implications in Jabi Tehnan District, West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

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      Malaria Journal

      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Background

          Generating evidence on the dry season occurrence of the larval and adult stage s of Anopheles mosquitoes helps to design effective malaria vector control strategy as the populations of the vectors is expected to be low.

          Methods

          Larval and adult stages of Anopheles were surveyed during dry seasons in Mender Meter, Jiga Yehlmidar and Wongie Berkegn villages, Jabi Tehnan District, West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. Larvae were surveyed (along the available surface water collections), sampled, identified into genus, counted and late instars of the genus Anopheles identified into species. Indoor-resting adult mosquitoes were collected using insecticide aerosol spray, processed and identified into species. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20.0 to determine frequencies, mean differences and associations.

          Results

          A total of 3127 Anopheles larvae were collected among which most (91.7%; 2869/3127) were from streams followed by ponds (4.3%; 136/3127) and swamps (3.9%; 122/3127). Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was the most prevalent (84.9%; 921/1085) followed by Anopheles cinereus (7.0%; 76/1085), Anopheles chrysti (3.7%; 40/1085), Anopheles demeilloni (2.8%; 30/1085) and Anopheles rhodesiensis (1.6%; 18/1085). The mean number (mean = 15.3) of An. gambiae from Jiga Yehlmidar was significantly (p = 0.024) higher than the corresponding number (mean = 3.2) from Mender Meter. The mean number (mean = 36.3) of An. gambiae larvae in April 2017 was significantly (p = 0.001) higher than the number (mean = 4.0) in December 2013 and the number (mean = 2.6) in March 2013. A total of 1324 adult Anopheles were collected of which the highest proportion (79.1%; 1048/1324) was An. gambiae, followed by An. chrysti (11.7%; 155/1324), An. demeilloni (6%; 80/1324), An. cinereus (2.6%; 35/1324) and Anopheles coustani (0.5%; 6/1324). The highest proportion (54.3%; 569/1048) of the An. gambiae was collected from Wongie Berkegn followed by Jiga Yehlmidar (23.6%; 247/1048) and Mender Meter (22.1%; 232/1048). The mean number (mean = 7.8) of adult An. gambiae caught in Wongie Berkegn was significantly (p = 0.018) higher compared to the number (mean = 3.0) in Mender Meter. No significant difference was observed in the mean number of adult An. gambiae between the seasons.

          Conclusion and implication

          Streams were prolific breeding habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes followed by ponds and swamps in the dry seasons. In addition, a high population of indoor resting An. gambiae was caught from indoors. This implies the need for a strengthened vector control during dry seasons using breeding habitat management and improved housing in addition to the existing insecticide (LLINs and IRS) based interventions in Jabi Tehnan District, West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Spatial distribution and habitat characterization of anopheline mosquito larvae in Western Kenya.

          Studies were conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes and to analyze spatial heterogeneity of mosquito species in the Suba District of western Kenya. A total of 128 aquatic habitats containing mosquito larvae were sampled, and 2,209 anopheline and 10,538 culicine larvae were collected. The habitats were characterized based on size, pH, distance to the nearest house and to the shore of Lake Victoria, coverage of canopy, surface debris, algae and emergent plants, turbidity, substrate, and habitat types. Microscopic identification of third- and fourth-instar anopheline larvae did not yield any Anopheles funestus or other anophelines. A total of 829 An. gambiae s.l. larvae from all habitats were analyzed further by rDNA-polymerase chain reaction to identify individual species within the An. gambiae species complex. Overall, An. arabiensis was the predominant species (63.4%), and An. gambiae was less common (31.4%). The species composition of An. gambiae s.l. varied significantly among the sampling sites throughout Suba District. The larval habitats in the southern area of the district had a higher proportion of An. gambiae than in the northern area. Multiple logistic analysis did not detect any significant association between the occurrence of anopheline larvae and habitat variables, and principal component analysis did not identify key environmental factors associated with the abundance of An. gambiae. However, significant spatial heterogeneity in the relative abundance of An. gambiae within the Suba district was detected. When the effect of larval habitat locality was considered in the analysis, we found that the distance to the nearest house and substrate type were significantly associated with the relative abundance of An. gambiae. Future studies integrating detailed water chemistry analysis, remote sensing technology, and the ecology of predators may be required to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the observed spatial variation of anopheline larval distribution.
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            Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons for malaria control in Africa?

            Current malaria-control strategies emphasise domestic protection against adult mosquitoes with insecticides, and improved access to medical services. Malaria prevention by killing adult mosquitoes is generally favoured because moderately reducing their longevity can radically suppress community-level transmission. By comparison, controlling larvae has a less dramatic effect at any given level of coverage and is often more difficult to implement. Nevertheless, the historically most effective campaign against African vectors is the eradication of accidentally introduced Anopheles gambiae from 54000 km(2) of largely ideal habitat in northeast Brazil in the 1930s and early 1940s. This outstanding success was achieved through an integrated programme but relied overwhelmingly upon larval control. This experience was soon repeated in Egypt and another larval control programme successfully suppressed malaria for over 20 years around a Zambian copper mine. These affordable approaches were neglected after the advent of dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and global malaria-control policy shifted toward domestic adulticide methods. Larval-control methods should now be re-prioritised for research, development, and implementation as an additional way to roll back malaria.
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              Changes in house design reduce exposure to malaria mosquitoes.

              House design may affect an individual's exposure to malaria parasites, and hence to disease. We conducted a randomized-controlled study using experimental huts in rural Gambia, to determine whether installing a ceiling or closing the eaves could protect people from malaria mosquitoes. Five treatments were tested against a control hut: plywood ceiling; synthetic-netting ceiling; insecticide-treated synthetic-netting ceiling (deltamethrin 12.5 mg/m2); plastic insect-screen ceiling; or the eaves closed with mud. The acceptability of such interventions was investigated by discussions with local communities. House entry by Anopheles gambiae, the principal African malaria vector, was reduced by the presence of a ceiling: plywood (59% reduction), synthetic-netting (79%), insecticide-treated synthetic-netting (78%), plastic insect-screen (80%, P < 0.001 in all cases) and closed eaves (37%, ns). Similar reductions were also seen with Mansonia spp., vectors of lymphatic filariasis and numerous arboviruses. Netting and insect-screen ceilings probably work as decoy traps attracting mosquitoes into the roof space, but not the room. Ceilings are likely to be well accepted and may be of greatest benefit in areas of low to moderate transmission and when used in combination with other malaria control strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                animut2004@yahoo.com
                Journal
                Malar J
                Malar. J
                Malaria Journal
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2875
                29 November 2018
                29 November 2018
                2018
                : 17
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0001 1250 5688, GRID grid.7123.7, Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, , Addis Ababa University, ; P. O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                Article
                2599
                10.1186/s12936-018-2599-4
                6267885
                30497495
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

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