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      Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy.

      Annual review of biomedical engineering

      Biomedical Engineering, Fluorescent Dyes, History, 20th Century, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Microscopy, Confocal, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Photons, history, instrumentation, methods, Microscopy, Video, Optics and Photonics, Animals

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          Abstract

          Two-photon fluorescence microscopy is one of the most important recent inventions in biological imaging. This technology enables noninvasive study of biological specimens in three dimensions with submicrometer resolution. Two-photon excitation of fluorophores results from the simultaneous absorption of two photons. This excitation process has a number of unique advantages, such as reduced specimen photodamage and enhanced penetration depth. It also produces higher-contrast images and is a novel method to trigger localized photochemical reactions. Two-photon microscopy continues to find an increasing number of applications in biology and medicine.

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          Journal
          11701518
          10.1146/annurev.bioeng.2.1.399

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