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      Trabajos de Investigación Increase of plasma fatty acids without changes in n-6/n-3-PUFA ratio in asymptomatic obese subjects


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          La obesidad está asociada con una inflamación de bajo grado que contribuye al desarrollo de la insulino-resistencia y de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos saturados (AGS), monoinsaturados (AGMI) y poliinsaturados (AGPI) en sujetos obesos asintomáticos y determinar el ratio ácido araquidónico/ácido eicosapentanoico [ARA/EPA] como un posible marcador de inflamación, con su eventual asociación con los niveles de proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus). Se reclutaron 14 sujetos obesos (34,4 ± 11.1 años; índice de masa corporal: 36,0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) y 12 normopeso (30,6 ± 7.8 años; índice de masa corporal: 23,6 ± 2,4 kg/m2); las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos fueron determinados por cromatografía de gases. Los niveles de PCRus fueron más elevadas en los sujetos obesos (p=0,01) y correlacionaron con el contenido de grasa corporal. Los porcentajes relativos de AGS, AGMI, AGPI no se vieron afectados en los sujetos obesos, pero sus concentraciones plasmáticas se incrementaron en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias en las concentraciones de PUFAs de cadena larga (DHA, EPA y ARA) ni en el ratio ARA/EPA en los sujetos obesos. Estas observaciones no apoyan el uso del ratio ARA/EPA como un marcador de inflamación de bajo grado evaluada por PCRus en este grupo de sujetos obesos asintomáticos.

          Translated abstract

          Obesity is associated with a low grade inflammation which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the total saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma from asymptomatic obese subjects and to determine the arachidonic/eicosapentanoic acid ratio [ARA/EPA] as a marker of inflammation, and its eventual association with ultrasensitive CRP. Fourteen obese (34.4 ± 11.1y.; BMI: 36.0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) and 12 normal-weight (30.6 ± 7.8y.; BMI: 23,6± 2,4 kg/m2) subjects were recruited and their plasma fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. usCRP was higher in the obese subjects (p=0,01) and correlates with their body fat content. The percentages of SFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs were not affected in the obese subjects but their concentrations were increased, compared with the control group. However, no differences in the long chain PUFAs (DHA and EPA) concentrations or in the plasmatic ARA/EPA ratio were observed in these subjects. These observations do not support a relation between the ARA/EPA ratio and the presence of low grade inflammation evaluated by plasma usCRP in this group of asymptomatic obese subjects.

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          Adipokines as emerging mediators of immune response and inflammation.

          The scientific interest in the biology of white adipose tissue (WAT) has increased since the discovery of leptin in 1994. The description of the product of the gene obese (ob) demonstrated the role of adipose tissue in the physiopathology of obesity-related diseases, and helped to increase the identification of numerous other adipokines, many of a pro-inflammatory nature. It has become increasingly evident that WAT-derived adipokines can be considered as a hub between obesity-related exogenous factors, such as nutrition and lifestyle, and the molecular events that lead to metabolic syndrome, inflammatory and/or autoimmune conditions, and rheumatic diseases. In this Review, we will discuss the progress in adipokine research, focusing particular attention to the roles of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, and other recently identified adipokines in inflammatory, autoimmune and rheumatic diseases.
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            Essential fatty acids and phospholipase A2 in autistic spectrum disorders.

            A health questionnaire based on parental observations of clinical signs of fatty acid deficiency (FAD) showed that patients with autism and Asperger's syndrome (ASP) had significantly higher FAD scores (6.34+/-4.37 and 7.64+/-6.20, respectively) compared to controls (1.78+/-1.68). Patients with regressive autism had significantly higher percentages of 18:0,18:2n-6 and total saturates in their RBC membranes compared to controls, while 24:0, 22:5n-6, 24:1 and the 20:4n-6/20:5n-3 ratio were significantly higher in both regressive autism and ASP groups compared to controls. By comparison, the 18:1n-9 and 20:4n-6 values were significantly lower in patients with regressive autism compared to controls while 22:5n-3, total n-3 and total dimethyl acetals were significantly lower in both regressive autism and ASP groups compared to controls. Storage of RBC at -20 degrees C for 6 weeks resulted in significant reductions in highly unsaturated fatty acid levels in polar lipids of patients with regressive autism, compared to patients with classical autism or ASP, or controls. Patients diagnosed with both autism and ASP showed significantly increased levels of EPA ( approximately 200%) and DHA ( approximately 40%), and significantly reduced levels of ARA ( approximately 20%), 20:3n-6 and ARA/EPA ratio in their RBC polar lipids, when supplemented with EPA-rich fish oils, compared to controls and non-supplemented patients with autism. Patients with both regressive autism and classical autism/Asperger's syndrome had significantly higher concentrations of RBC type IV phospholipase A2 compared to controls. However, patients with autism/ASP, who had taken EPA supplements, had significantly reduced PLA2 concentrations compared to unsupplemented patients with classical autism or ASP.
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              Lowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients.

              Depression is associated with a lowered degree of esterification of serum cholesterol, an increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 ratio and decreases in omega3 fractions in fatty acids (FAs) or in the red blood cell membrane. The aims of the present study were to examine: (i) serum phospholipid and cholesteryl ester compositions of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in major depressed patients vs. healthy volunteers; (ii) the relationships between the above FAs and lowered serum zinc (Zn), a marker of the inflammatory response in depression; and (iii) the effects of subchronic treatment with antidepressants on FAs in depression. The composition of the FAs was determined by means of thin layer chromatography in conjunction with gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations were assayed by enzymatic colorimetric methods. The oxidative potential index (OPI) of FAs was computed in 34 major depressed inpatients and 14 normal volunteers. Major depression was associated with: increased MUFA and C22:5omega3 proportions and increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios; lower C22:4omega6, C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega3 fractions in phospholipids; lower C18:3omega3, C20:5omega3 and total (sigma)omega3 FAs, and higher C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3 ratios in cholesteryl esters; lower serum concentrations of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters; and a decreased OPI. In depression, there were significant and positive correlations between serum Zn and C20:5omega3 and C22:6omega3 fractions in phospholipids; and significant inverse correlations between serum Zn and the sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3, C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3, and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios in phospholipids. There was no significant effect of antidepressive treatment on any of the FAs. The results show that, in major depression, there is a deficiency of omega3 PUFAs and a compensatory increase in MUFAs and C22:5omega6 in phospholipids. The results suggest that: (i) there is an abnormal metabolism of omega3 PUFAs in depression; (ii) the FA alterations in depression are related to the inflammatory response in that illness; and (iii) the disorders may persist despite successful antidepressant treatment.

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                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                June 2011
                : 61
                : 2
                : 149-153
                [1 ] Univ. of Chile Chile



                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                ácido eicosapentaenoico,Obesity,inflammation,polyunsaturated,fatty acids,arachidonic,Obesidad,inflamación,ácidos grasos poliinsaturados,ácido docosahexaenoico,ácido araquidónico


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