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      Where should analgesia lead to? Quality of life and functional recovery with tapentadol

      1 , 2 , 3

      Journal of Pain Research

      Dove

      pain, quality of life, tapentadol

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          Abstract

          Chronic pain is a major health-care problem worldwide, affecting more than one out of five adults in Europe. Although multiple analgesic agents have been extensively investigated in terms of clinical response and tolerability profile, few studies have focused on the impact of these therapies on patients’ quality of life (QoL). Of note, improvement in QoL, together with functional recovery, has been recognized since the late 1990s as two main goals of analgesic therapy. Tapentadol is a novel analgesic molecule that synergistically combines two mechanisms of action, µ-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition, and for which multiple literature data are available that confirm its efficacy and safety in controlling pain. This narrative review summarizes the information available on the impact of tapentadol on QoL, with the aim to provide clinicians with a comprehensive overview of the analgesic effects of tapentadol prolonged release beyond the reduction of pain.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Long-term opioid management for chronic noncancer pain.

          Opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) is controversial due to concerns regarding long-term effectiveness and safety, particularly the risk of tolerance, dependence, or abuse. To assess safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of opioids taken long-term for CNCP. We searched 10 bibliographic databases up to May 2009. We searched for studies that: collected efficacy data on participants after at least 6 months of treatment; were full-text articles; did not include redundant data; were prospective; enrolled at least 10 participants; reported data of participants who had CNCP. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and pre-post case-series studies were included. Two review authors independently extracted safety and effectiveness data and settled discrepancies by consensus. We used random-effects meta-analysis' to summarize data where appropriate, used the I(2) statistic to quantify heterogeneity, and, where appropriate, explored heterogeneity using meta-regression. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. We reviewed 26 studies with 27 treatment groups that enrolled a total of 4893 participants. Twenty five of the studies were case series or uncontrolled long-term trial continuations, the other was an RCT comparing two opioids. Opioids were administered orally (number of study treatments groups [abbreviated as "k"] = 12, n = 3040), transdermally (k = 5, n = 1628), or intrathecally (k = 10, n = 231). Many participants discontinued due to adverse effects (oral: 22.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.3% to 32.8%]; transdermal: 12.1% [95% CI: 4.9% to 27.0%]; intrathecal: 8.9% [95% CI: 4.0% to 26.1%]); or insufficient pain relief (oral: 10.3% [95% CI: 7.6% to 13.9%]; intrathecal: 7.6% [95% CI: 3.7% to 14.8%]; transdermal: 5.8% [95% CI: 4.2% to 7.9%]). Signs of opioid addiction were reported in 0.27% of participants in the studies that reported that outcome. All three modes of administration were associated with clinically significant reductions in pain, but the amount of pain relief varied among studies. Findings regarding quality of life and functional status were inconclusive due to an insufficient quantity of evidence for oral administration studies and inconclusive statistical findings for transdermal and intrathecal administration studies. Many patients discontinue long-term opioid therapy (especially oral opioids) due to adverse events or insufficient pain relief; however, weak evidence suggests that patients who are able to continue opioids long-term experience clinically significant pain relief. Whether quality of life or functioning improves is inconclusive. Many minor adverse events (like nausea and headache) occurred, but serious adverse events, including iatrogenic opioid addiction, were rare.
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            Tapentadol and its two mechanisms of action: is there a new pharmacological class of centrally-acting analgesics on the horizon?

             H Kress (2010)
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              Tapentadol in cancer pain management: a prospective open-label study.

              The aim of this prospective, open-label study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of tapentadol (TP) in the management of cancer pain. A 4 weeks' prospective study was carried out in 50 opioid-naive cancer patients with moderate-severe pain. Each patient initially received twice-daily doses of slow-release TP 50 mg. Doses were then managed to maintain adequate relief or dose-limiting toxicity, on the basis of the clinical response. The following parameters were recorded at weekly intervals for 4 weeks: pain and opioid-related adverse effects, quality of life measured with the Spitzer score, TP escalation index percent (TPEI%) and TP escalation index in mg (TPEImg), calculated at the end of the study, pain mechanisms, and PainDETECT at baseline. Of 50 patients, 39 completed the entire study and 11 discontinued the treatment for different reasons. Pain intensity significantly decreased from baseline to all the week intervals (p < 0.0005), and adverse effects did not changed significantly, while quality of life improved. TP escalation indexes were low and no relationship was found with age, gender, and pain mechanisms. Tapentalol started in doses of 100 mg/day was well-tolerated and effective in opioid-naive patients with cancer pain, regardless of the pain mechanism. It can be considered as a flexible drug to be used in patients with moderate-severe pain. This was an open-label study for exploratory purposes. Data should be confirmed in controlled studies with a larger number of patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                JPR
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                16 May 2019
                2019
                : 12
                : 1561-1567
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Rehabilitation Department, ASST Pini-CTO , 20100 Milan, Italy
                [2 ]Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche, s.c. Ortopedia e Traumatologia Università di Perugia. Ospedale S.Maria della Misericordia , 06100 Perugia, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, Sezione di Clinica Medica e Anatomia Patologia , 05100 Terni, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lorenzo PanellaRehabilitation Department, ASST Pini-CTO , Via Isocrate 19, Milan, ItalyTel +39 025 829 6015Email lorenzo.panella@ 123456asst-pini-cto.it
                Article
                190158
                10.2147/JPR.S190158
                6529727
                © 2019 Panella et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 22, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Review

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                tapentadol, quality of life, pain

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