Modern reconstructive methods of dentistry (stopping, restoration, and prosthetics with different types of orthopedic constructions) require detailed examination of the anatomical structure of the teeth crowns, especially examination of the knowledge about the relief of masticatory surface. That is why, we conducted a detailed examination of the features of odontoglyphics of molars, according to the sex and determination the odontometrical teeth indices of the citizens of Ternopil region. To achieve the goals, we use the following research methods, such as odontological, odontometrical, and statistical. According to the odontometrical indices of the sizes of the crowns of the molars, women’s processes of reduction are reflected more than men’s. Sex differences of the crown sizes are specially defined on the second upper and second lower molars. In the result of the conducted researches, it was found and theoretically confirmed racial identity of Ternopil and Ternopil region citizens, and it was given the characteristics of the differences of odontometrical indices of molar crowns of males and females. The lore of these characteristics plays a great role in the clinic of prosthetic dentistry.