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      Heart Failure: Diagnosis, Management and Utilization

      review-article
      1 , 2 , * , 2
      Journal of Clinical Medicine
      MDPI
      biomarker, heart failure, ICD 10, readmission, utilization

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          Abstract

          Despite the advancement in medicine, management of heart failure (HF), which usually presents as a disease syndrome, has been a challenge to healthcare providers. This is reflected by the relatively higher rate of readmissions along with increased mortality and morbidity associated with HF. In this review article, we first provide a general overview of types of HF pathogenesis and diagnostic features of HF including the crucial role of exercise in determining the severity of heart failure, the efficacy of therapeutic strategies and the morbidity/mortality of HF. We then discuss the quality control measures to prevent the growing readmission rates for HF. We also attempt to elucidate published and ongoing clinical trials for HF in an effort to evaluate the standard and novel therapeutic approaches, including stem cell and gene therapies, to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Finally, we discuss the appropriate utilization/documentation and medical coding based on the severity of the HF alone and with minor and major co-morbidities. We consider that this review provides an extensive overview of the HF in terms of disease pathophysiology, management and documentation for the general readers, as well as for the clinicians/physicians/hospitalists.

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          Most cited references89

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          Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for the prevention of heart-failure events.

          This trial was designed to determine whether cardiac-resynchronization therapy (CRT) with biventricular pacing would reduce the risk of death or heart-failure events in patients with mild cardiac symptoms, a reduced ejection fraction, and a wide QRS complex. During a 4.5-year period, we enrolled and followed 1820 patients with ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy, an ejection fraction of 30% or less, a QRS duration of 130 msec or more, and New York Heart Association class I or II symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:2 ratio to receive CRT plus an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (1089 patients) or an ICD alone (731 patients). The primary end point was death from any cause or a nonfatal heart-failure event (whichever came first). Heart-failure events were diagnosed by physicians who were aware of the treatment assignments, but they were adjudicated by a committee that was unaware of assignments. During an average follow-up of 2.4 years, the primary end point occurred in 187 of 1089 patients in the CRT-ICD group (17.2%) and 185 of 731 patients in the ICD-only group (25.3%) (hazard ratio in the CRT-ICD group, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.84; P=0.001). The benefit did not differ significantly between patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and those with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The superiority of CRT was driven by a 41% reduction in the risk of heart-failure events, a finding that was evident primarily in a prespecified subgroup of patients with a QRS duration of 150 msec or more. CRT was associated with a significant reduction in left ventricular volumes and improvement in the ejection fraction. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the overall risk of death, with a 3% annual mortality rate in each treatment group. Serious adverse events were infrequent in the two groups. CRT combined with ICD decreased the risk of heart-failure events in relatively asymptomatic patients with a low ejection fraction and wide QRS complex. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00180271.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Wireless pulmonary artery haemodynamic monitoring in chronic heart failure: a randomised controlled trial.

            Results of previous studies support the hypothesis that implantable haemodynamic monitoring systems might reduce rates of hospitalisation in patients with heart failure. We undertook a single-blind trial to assess this approach. Patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III heart failure, irrespective of the left ventricular ejection fraction, and a previous hospital admission for heart failure were enrolled in 64 centres in the USA. They were randomly assigned by use of a centralised electronic system to management with a wireless implantable haemodynamic monitoring (W-IHM) system (treatment group) or to a control group for at least 6 months. Only patients were masked to their assignment group. In the treatment group, clinicians used daily measurement of pulmonary artery pressures in addition to standard of care versus standard of care alone in the control group. The primary efficacy endpoint was the rate of heart-failure-related hospitalisations at 6 months. The safety endpoints assessed at 6 months were freedom from device-related or system-related complications (DSRC) and freedom from pressure-sensor failures. All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00531661. In 6 months, 83 heart-failure-related hospitalisations were reported in the treatment group (n=270) compared with 120 in the control group (n=280; rate 0·31 vs 0·44, hazard ratio [HR] 0·70, 95% CI 0·60-0·84, p<0·0001). During the entire follow-up (mean 15 months [SD 7]), the treatment group had a 39% reduction in heart-failure-related hospitalisation compared with the control group (153 vs 253, HR 0·64, 95% CI 0·55-0·75; p<0·0001). Eight patients had DSRC and overall freedom from DSRC was 98·6% (97·3-99·4) compared with a prespecified performance criterion of 80% (p<0·0001); and overall freedom from pressure-sensor failures was 100% (99·3-100·0). Our results are consistent with, and extend, previous findings by definitively showing a significant and large reduction in hospitalisation for patients with NYHA class III heart failure who were managed with a wireless implantable haemodynamic monitoring system. The addition of information about pulmonary artery pressure to clinical signs and symptoms allows for improved heart failure management. CardioMEMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Comparison of allogeneic vs autologous bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells delivered by transendocardial injection in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: the POSEIDON randomized trial.

              Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are under evaluation as a therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Both autologous and allogeneic MSC therapies are possible; however, their safety and efficacy have not been compared. To test whether allogeneic MSCs are as safe and effective as autologous MSCs in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction due to ICM. A phase 1/2 randomized comparison (POSEIDON study) in a US tertiary-care referral hospital of allogeneic and autologous MSCs in 30 patients with LV dysfunction due to ICM between April 2, 2010, and September 14, 2011, with 13-month follow-up. Twenty million, 100 million, or 200 million cells (5 patients in each cell type per dose level) were delivered by transendocardial stem cell injection into 10 LV sites. Thirty-day postcatheterization incidence of predefined treatment-emergent serious adverse events (SAEs). Efficacy assessments included 6-minute walk test, exercise peak VO2, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), New York Heart Association class, LV volumes, ejection fraction (EF), early enhancement defect (EED; infarct size), and sphericity index. Within 30 days, 1 patient in each group (treatment-emergent SAE rate, 6.7%) was hospitalized for heart failure, less than the prespecified stopping event rate of 25%. The 1-year incidence of SAEs was 33.3% (n = 5) in the allogeneic group and 53.3% (n = 8) in the autologous group (P = .46). At 1 year, there were no ventricular arrhythmia SAEs observed among allogeneic recipients compared with 4 patients (26.7%) in the autologous group (P = .10). Relative to baseline, autologous but not allogeneic MSC therapy was associated with an improvement in the 6-minute walk test and the MLHFQ score, but neither improved exercise VO2 max. Allogeneic and autologous MSCs reduced mean EED by −33.21% (95% CI, −43.61% to −22.81%; P < .001) and sphericity index but did not increase EF. Allogeneic MSCs reduced LV end-diastolic volumes. Low-dose concentration MSCs (20 million cells) produced greatest reductions in LV volumes and increased EF. Allogeneic MSCs did not stimulate significant donor-specific alloimmune reactions. In this early-stage study of patients with ICM, transendocardial injection of allogeneic and autologous MSCs without a placebo control were both associated with low rates of treatment-emergent SAEs, including immunologic reactions. In aggregate, MSC injection favorably affected patient functional capacity, quality of life, and ventricular remodeling. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01087996.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                jcm
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                MDPI
                2077-0383
                29 June 2016
                July 2016
                : 5
                : 7
                : 62
                Affiliations
                [1 ]John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA
                [2 ]Ansicht Scidel Inc., Edison, NJ 08837, USA; ajinkya.inamdar@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ainamdar@ 123456hackensackumc.org ; Tel.: +1-551-996-2000
                Article
                jcm-05-00062
                10.3390/jcm5070062
                4961993
                27367736
                370a28bc-ef14-4445-9b36-43ea82a569f2
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 10 March 2016
                : 13 June 2016
                Categories
                Review

                biomarker,heart failure,icd 10,readmission,utilization
                biomarker, heart failure, icd 10, readmission, utilization

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