Blog
About

111
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    4
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Motor neuron apoptosis and neuromuscular junction perturbation are prominent features in a Drosophila model of Fus-mediated ALS

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Backgound

          Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motor function. Several ALS genes have been identified as their mutations can lead to familial ALS, including the recently reported RNA-binding protein fused in sarcoma (Fus). However, it is not clear how mutations of Fus lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS. In this study, we present a Drosophila model to examine the toxicity of Fus, its Drosophila orthologue Cabeza (Caz), and the ALS-related Fus mutants.

          Results

          Our results show that the expression of wild-type Fus/Caz or FusR521G induced progressive toxicity in multiple tissues of the transgenic flies in a dose- and age-dependent manner. The expression of Fus, Caz, or FusR521G in motor neurons significantly impaired the locomotive ability of fly larvae and adults. The presynaptic structures in neuromuscular junctions were disrupted and motor neurons in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) were disorganized and underwent apoptosis. Surprisingly, the interruption of Fus nuclear localization by either deleting its nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or adding a nuclear export signal (NES) blocked Fus toxicity. Moreover, we discovered that the loss of caz in Drosophila led to severe growth defects in the eyes and VNCs, caused locomotive disability and NMJ disruption, but did not induce apoptotic cell death.

          Conclusions

          These data demonstrate that the overexpression of Fus/Caz causes in vivo toxicity by disrupting neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and inducing apoptosis in motor neurons. In addition, the nuclear localization of Fus is essential for Fus to induce toxicity. Our findings also suggest that Fus overexpression and gene deletion can cause similar degenerative phenotypes but the underlying mechanisms are likely different.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 30

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          An optimized transgenesis system for Drosophila using germ-line-specific phiC31 integrases.

          Germ-line transformation via transposable elements is a powerful tool to study gene function in Drosophila melanogaster. However, some inherent characteristics of transposon-mediated transgenesis limit its use for transgene analysis. Here, we circumvent these limitations by optimizing a phiC31-based integration system. We generated a collection of lines with precisely mapped attP sites that allow the insertion of transgenes into many different predetermined intergenic locations throughout the fly genome. By using regulatory elements of the nanos and vasa genes, we established endogenous sources of the phiC31 integrase, eliminating the difficulties of coinjecting integrase mRNA and raising the transformation efficiency. Moreover, to discriminate between specific and rare nonspecific integration events, a white gene-based reconstitution system was generated that enables visual selection for precise attP targeting. Finally, we demonstrate that our chromosomal attP sites can be modified in situ, extending their scope while retaining their properties as landing sites. The efficiency, ease-of-use, and versatility obtained here with the phiC31-based integration system represents an important advance in transgenesis and opens up the possibility of systematic, high-throughput screening of large cDNA sets and regulatory elements.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            TDP-43 mutant transgenic mice develop features of ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

            Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are neurodegenerative diseases that show considerable clinical and pathologic overlap, with no effective treatments available. Mutations in the RNA binding protein TDP-43 were recently identified in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and TDP-43 aggregates are found in both ALS and FTLD-U (FTLD with ubiquitin aggregates), suggesting a common underlying mechanism. We report that mice expressing a mutant form of human TDP-43 develop a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease reminiscent of both ALS and FTLD-U. Despite universal transgene expression throughout the nervous system, pathologic aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins accumulate only in specific neuronal populations, including layer 5 pyramidal neurons in frontal cortex, as well as spinal motor neurons, recapitulating the phenomenon of selective vulnerability seen in patients with FTLD-U and ALS. Surprisingly, cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates are not present, and hence are not required for TDP-43-induced neurodegeneration. These results indicate that the cellular and molecular substrates for selective vulnerability in FTLD-U and ALS are shared between mice and humans, and suggest that altered DNA/RNA-binding protein function, rather than toxic aggregation, is central to TDP-43-related neurodegeneration.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Rules for nuclear localization sequence recognition by karyopherin beta 2.

              Karyopherinbeta (Kapbeta) proteins bind nuclear localization and export signals (NLSs and NESs) to mediate nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, a process regulated by Ran GTPase through its nucleotide cycle. Diversity and complexity of signals recognized by Kap betas have prevented prediction of new Kap beta substrates. The structure of Kap beta 2 (also known as Transportin) bound to one of its substrates, the NLS of hnRNP A1, that we report here explains the mechanism of substrate displacement by Ran GTPase. Further analyses reveal three rules for NLS recognition by Kap beta 2: NLSs are structurally disordered in free substrates, have overall basic character, and possess a central hydrophobic or basic motif followed by a C-terminal R/H/KX(2-5)PY consensus sequence. We demonstrate the predictive nature of these rules by identifying NLSs in seven previously known Kap beta 2 substrates and uncovering 81 new candidate substrates, confirming five experimentally. These studies define and validate a new NLS that could not be predicted by primary sequence analysis alone.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mol Neurodegener
                Mol Neurodegener
                Molecular Neurodegeneration
                BioMed Central
                1750-1326
                2012
                24 March 2012
                : 7
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, KY 40536 Lexington, USA
                [2 ]Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, KY 40536 Lexington, USA
                Article
                1750-1326-7-10
                10.1186/1750-1326-7-10
                3325858
                22443542
                Copyright ©2012 Xia et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Neurosciences

                locomotion, als, neurodegeneration, caz, fus, drosophila

                Comments

                Comment on this article