To assess the burden of road traffic injuries in Pakistan-a developing country in South Asia. A nationally representative household interview survey, to measure the burden of all injuries for all ages and in both genders using a three-month recall period. The overall incidence of injury events was 41 (CI: 39.2-43.8) per 1000 per year and for road traffic injuries 15 (CI: 13.7-16.5) per 1000 per year. The relative risk for road traffic injuries was found to be higher in males, those 16-45 years old, and those in the professional category of laborers and vendors. This first national survey reflects the growing impact of injuries, especially road traffic injuries in Pakistan and portends a challenge for the national health system.