The onset of steroidogenesis in human fetal adrenal glands (HFA) during the first trimester is poorly investigated. An unresolved question is the capacity of the HFA to produce potent androgen DHT via conventional and/or the backdoor pathway(s) at the end of first trimester, when androgen-responsive organs are developed. Our aim was to explore steroidogenesis and the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and transcription factors in HFA at gestational weeks (GW) 9–12 with focus on their androgenic potential. Steroids in the HFA were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The expression of steroidogenic enzymes and transcription factors in the HFA at GW9–12 was investigated by qPCR, automated Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that during GW9–12 HFA produced steroids of the ∆ 5, ∆ 4 and the backdoor pathways of the biosynthesis of DHT, though the latter was limited to production of 17α-OH-dihydroprogesterone, androsterone and androstanedione without further conversion to DHT. The only androgens identified in the HFA were testosterone and androsterone, a precursor in the biosynthesis of DHT. We also observed higher levels of CYP17A1 but low expression of 3βHSD2 at GW11–12 in the HFA. Elevated levels of CYP17A1 were associated with an increased expression of SF-1 and GATA-6. Altogether, our data demonstrate that of those steroids analyzed, the only potent androgen directly produced by the HFA at GW9–12 was testosterone. The onset of steroidogenesis in the HFA is a complex process that is regulated by the coordinated action of related transcription factors.