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      Rapid Regression of Scleral Melting Associated with Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in a Case of Surgically Induced Necrotizing Scleritis


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          Purpose: To report a case with rapid regression of scleral melting associated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a surgically induced necrotizing scleritis (SINS) patient treated with local steroid therapy. Case Presentation: An 85-year-old male patient presented with conjunctival tumor in his right eye. Complete resection of the tumor lesion and conjunctival re-construction were performed. Local steroid drops were administered until 1 month after surgery, and a good clinical course was achieved. However, after stopping the local steroid, scleral melting to the uvea occurred on the center of the tumor-resected sclera. After diagnosing SINS, we immediately restarted his local steroid. After 2 weeks, there was a complete and rapid regression of the scleral melting. Following this episode, only local steroid therapy was continued for the treatment of SINS, with no recurrence observed after 6 months. Histopathological analysis revealed the infiltration of inflammatory cells during the acute phase, with TNF-α immune reactivity observed in the center of the melting site near the resected conjunctiva. Conclusion: We speculate that the observed changes were associated with the TNF-α that was present during the pathological state of SINS. Local steroid therapy may play a key role in the local immune balance in SINS.

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          Historical perspectives on tumor necrosis factor and its superfamily: 25 years later, a golden journey.

          Although activity that induced tumor regression was observed and termed tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as early as the 1960s, the true identity of TNF was not clear until 1984, when Aggarwal and coworkers reported, for the first time, the isolation of 2 cytotoxic factors: one, derived from macrophages (molecular mass 17 kDa), was named TNF, and the second, derived from lymphocytes (20 kDa), was named lymphotoxin. Because the 2 cytotoxic factors exhibited 50% amino acid sequence homology and bound to the same receptor, they came to be called TNF-α and TNF-β. Identification of the protein sequences led to cloning of their cDNA. Based on sequence homology to TNF-α, now a total of 19 members of the TNF superfamily have been identified, along with 29 interacting receptors, and several molecules that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of these receptors. The roles of the TNF superfamily in inflammation, apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and morphogenesis have been documented. Their roles in immunologic, cardiovascular, neurologic, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases are becoming apparent. TNF superfamily members are active targets for drug development, as indicated by the recent approval and expanding market of TNF blockers used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohns disease, and osteoporosis, with a total market of more than US $20 billion. As we learn more about this family, more therapeutics will probably emerge. In this review, we summarize the initial discovery of TNF-α, and the insights gained regarding the roles of this molecule and its related family members in normal physiology and disease.
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            Tumor necrosis factor alpha secreted from oral squamous cell carcinoma contributes to cancer pain and associated inflammation

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              Surgically induced necrotising sclerokeratitis (SINS)--precipitating factors and response to treatment.

              The clinical features, treatment, and visual outcome of 52 eyes from 43 patients who developed scleritis following surgery were reviewed. In all patients the scleral inflammation developed adjacent to a surgical wound. Ninety six per cent had necrotising disease and 23% also had evidence of secondary posterior scleritis. Many different types of ocular surgery were implicated and the majority (75%) of the patients had two or more surgical procedures before the onset of the scleritis. Although cataract extraction through a limbal incision resulted in the largest subgroup, scleritis also followed glaucoma, strabismus, and retinal detachment surgery. The latent period between surgery and the appearance of inflammation was short (mean 9 months) except for a small group in whom scleritis occurred many years after squint surgery. Sixty three per cent of patients had evidence of a systemic disease. Early diagnosis and aggressive medical treatment significantly improved the visual outcome. The precipitating factors, pathogenesis, and course of this condition are discussed.

                Author and article information

                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                May – August 2020
                06 August 2020
                : 11
                : 2
                : 418-422
                Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan
                Author notes
                *Mizuki Tagami, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-5-7 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8586 (Japan), tagami.mizuki@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp
                509260 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2020;11:418–422
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 02 April 2020
                : 06 June 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 5
                Case Report

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Immunohistochemistry,Surgically induced necrotizing scleritis,Tumor necrosis factor-α


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