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      Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome: A Contemporary Review

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          Abstract

          Coronary subclavian steal syndrome (CSSS) is a rare cause of angina. It occurs in patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafting and, specifically, a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to left anterior descending artery (LAD) graft and co-existent significant subclavian artery stenosis. In this context, there is retrograde blood flow through the LIMA to LAD graft to supply the subclavian artery beyond the significant stenosis. This potentially occurs at the cost of compromising coronary artery perfusion dependent on the LIMA graft. In this review, we present a case of a middle-aged female who suffered from CSSS and review the literature for the contemporary diagnosis and management of this condition.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Subclavian artery stenosis: prevalence, risk factors, and association with cardiovascular diseases.

          The objective was to assess the prevalence of subclavian artery stenosis (SS) in four cohorts (two free-living and two clinical populations) and determine both risk factors for this condition and the association with other cardiovascular conditions. The prevalence of SS in the general population is unknown, and its association with risk factors and other cardiovascular diseases is not well-established. A total of 4,223 subjects (2,975 from two free-living cohorts and 1,248 from two clinical cohorts) were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Subclavian artery stenosis was defined as > or =15 mm Hg interarm pressure difference. The prevalence of SS was 1.9% in the free-living cohorts and 7.1% in the clinical cohorts; SS was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with past smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80), current smoking (OR = 2.61), and higher levels of systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.90 per 20 mm Hg). Higher levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were inversely and significantly associated with SS (OR = 0.87 per 10 mg/dl). In regression analyses relating SS to other cardiovascular diseases, the only significant finding was with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (OR = 5.11, p < 0.001). Significant SS is present in approximately 2% of the free-living population and 7% of the clinical population. Additionally, SS is correlated with current and past smoking histories, systolic blood pressure, HDL levels (inversely), and the presence of PAD. These findings suggest that bilateral brachial blood pressure measurements should routinely be performed in patients with an elevated risk profile, both to screen for SS, and to avoid missing a hypertension or PAD diagnosis because of unilateral pressure measurement in an obstructed arm.
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            Coronary artery fistula in children and adults: a review of 25 cases with long-term observations.

            We studied 25 patients with coronary artery fistula between 1976 and 1994. Age ranged from 1 to 58 years. Twelve patients were symptomatic; seven had dyspnoea, four had angina, one had palpitation and one had syncope. Coronary arteries in four. Coronary artery fistula drained into right ventricle in 11, right atrium in nine, pulmonary artery in four and left ventricle in two. The Qp/Qs ranged from 1.0 to 2.6 with a mean of 1.39 +/- 0.38. Five patients had associated cardiac anomalies. Two had atrial septal defects, one had patent ductus arteriosus, one had atresia of proximal right coronary artery and in one patient, the right coronary was arising from left coronary artery. Five patients underwent surgery without any operative mortality. Thirteen patients were followed-up medically for a mean period of 6.1 +/- 5.1 years. There were no complications related to coronary artery fistula during follow-up. In one patient coronary artery fistula closed spontaneously.
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              Angiographic prevalence and clinical predictors of left subclavian stenosis in patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization.

              The angiographic prevalence, clinical predictors, and sensitivity and specificity of a bilateral arm blood pressure differential for predicting proximal left subclavian artery stenosis were established in 492 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Seventeen subjects (3.5%) in the overall population and nine subjects (5.3%) with potential surgical coronary disease had proximal left subclavian stenosis. Precatheterization evidence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) was the only predictor of subclavian stenosis in the overall population (P 10 mm Hg and of > or =20 mm Hg had a good specificity but a poor sensitivity for predicting left subclavian stenosis. Thus, left subclavian angiography should be performed in patients with surgical coronary disease with either an arm blood pressure differential of > 10 mm Hg or with other precatheterization evidence of PVD. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 2001;54:8-11. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2020
                September 2020
                10 July 2020
                : 145
                : 9
                : 601-607
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                bDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                cDepartment of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                dDepartment of Vascular Surgery, Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                eSection of Cardiovascular Imaging, Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                Author notes
                *Bo Xu, Section of Cardiovascular Imaging, Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of, Cardiovascular Medicine, Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart, Vascular and, Thoracic Institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (USA), xub@ccf.org
                Article
                508652 Cardiology 2020;145:601–607
                10.1159/000508652
                32653884
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Cardiac Surgery: Novel Insights from Clinical Experience

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