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      Cancer Biomarkers: Are We Ready for the Prime Time?

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          Abstract

          A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. In cancer, a biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker might be either a molecule secreted by a tumor or it can be a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and epidemiology. These markers can be assayed in non-invasively collected biofluids. However, few cancer biomarkers are highly sensitive and specific for cancer detection at the present time. Consequently, biomarkers are not yet ready for routine use due to challenges in their clinical validation for early disease detection, diagnosis and monitoring to improve long-term survival of patients.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers (Basel)
                cancers
                Cancers
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                2072-6694
                22 March 2010
                March 2010
                : 2
                : 1
                : 190-208
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology, Division of Molecular Oncology, Noida, 201301, UP, India; E-Mail: mishraa2@ 123456mail.nih.gov
                [2 ]Methods and Technologies Branch, Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institues of Health (NIH), 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 5100, Bethesda, MD 20892-7324, USA
                Author notes
                [†]

                Present address: Lab Molecular Biology, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: vermam@ 123456mail.nih.gov ; Tel.: +1-301 594 7344.
                Article
                cancers-02-00190
                10.3390/cancers2010190
                3827599
                3919f8c3-b607-49f4-bc75-c263a1e22667
                © 2010 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                biomarker, cancer, diagnosis, glycans, prognosis, validation

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