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      Just-in-time postnatal education programmes to improve newborn care practices: needs and opportunities in low-resource settings

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          Abstract

          Worldwide, many newborns die in the first month of life, with most deaths happening in low/middle-income countries (LMICs). Families’ use of evidence-based newborn care practices in the home and timely care-seeking for illness can save newborn lives. Postnatal education is an important investment to improve families’ use of evidence-based newborn care practices, yet there are gaps in the literature on postnatal education programmes that have been evaluated to date. Recent findings from a 13 000+ person survey in 3 states in India show opportunities for improvement in postnatal education for mothers and families and their use of newborn care practices in the home. Our survey data and the literature suggest the need to incorporate the following strategies into future postnatal education programming: implement structured predischarge education with postdischarge reinforcement, using a multipronged teaching approach to reach whole families with education on multiple newborn care practices. Researchers need to conduct robust evaluation on postnatal education models incorporating these programee elements in the LMIC context, as well as explore whether this type of education model can work for other health areas that are critical for families to survive and thrive.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Evidence-based, cost-effective interventions: how many newborn babies can we save?

          In this second article of the neonatal survival series, we identify 16 interventions with proven efficacy (implementation under ideal conditions) for neonatal survival and combine them into packages for scaling up in health systems, according to three service delivery modes (outreach, family-community, and facility-based clinical care). All the packages of care are cost effective compared with single interventions. Universal (99%) coverage of these interventions could avert an estimated 41-72% of neonatal deaths worldwide. At 90% coverage, intrapartum and postnatal packages have similar effects on neonatal mortality--two-fold to three-fold greater than that of antenatal care. However, running costs are two-fold higher for intrapartum than for postnatal care. A combination of universal--ie, for all settings--outreach and family-community care at 90% coverage averts 18-37% of neonatal deaths. Most of this benefit is derived from family-community care, and greater effect is seen in settings with very high neonatal mortality. Reductions in neonatal mortality that exceed 50% can be achieved with an integrated, high-coverage programme of universal outreach and family-community care, consisting of 12% and 26%, respectively, of total running costs, plus universal facility-based clinical services, which make up 62% of the total cost. Early success in averting neonatal deaths is possible in settings with high mortality and weak health systems through outreach and family-community care, including health education to improve home-care practices, to create demand for skilled care, and to improve care seeking. Simultaneous expansion of clinical care for babies and mothers is essential to achieve the reduction in neonatal deaths needed to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child survival.
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            Effect of community-based behaviour change management on neonatal mortality in Shivgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

            In rural India, most births take place in the home, where high-risk care practices are common. We developed an intervention of behaviour change management, with a focus on prevention of hypothermia, aimed at modifying practices and reducing neonatal mortality. We did a cluster-randomised controlled efficacy trial in Shivgarh, a rural area in Uttar Pradesh. 39 village administrative units (population 104,123) were allocated to one of three groups: a control group, which received the usual services of governmental and non-governmental organisations in the area; an intervention group, which received a preventive package of interventions for essential newborn care (birth preparedness, clean delivery and cord care, thermal care [including skin-to-skin care], breastfeeding promotion, and danger sign recognition); or another intervention group, which received the package of essential newborn care plus use of a liquid crystal hypothermia indicator (ThermoSpot). In the intervention clusters, community health workers delivered the packages via collective meetings and two antenatal and two postnatal household visitations. Outcome measures included changes in newborn-care practices and neonatal mortality rate compared with the control group. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered as International Standard Randomised Control Trial, number NCT00198653. Improvements in birth preparedness, hygienic delivery, thermal care (including skin-to-skin care), umbilical cord care, skin care, and breastfeeding were seen in intervention arms. There was little change in care-seeking. Compared with controls, neonatal mortality rate was reduced by 54% in the essential newborn-care intervention (rate ratio 0.46 [95% CI 0.35-0.60], p<0.0001) and by 52% in the essential newborn care plus ThermoSpot arm (0.48 [95% CI 0.35-0.66], p<0.0001). A socioculturally contextualised, community-based intervention, targeted at high-risk newborn-care practices, can lead to substantial behavioural modification and reduction in neonatal mortality. This approach can be applied to behaviour change along the continuum of care, harmonise vertical interventions, and build community capacity for sustained development. USAID and Save the Children-US through a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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              Saving newborn lives in Asia and Africa: cost and impact of phased scale-up of interventions within the continuum of care.

              Policy makers and programme managers require more detailed information on the cost and impact of packages of evidenced-based interventions to save newborn lives, particularly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where most of the world's 4 million newborn deaths occur. We estimated the newborn deaths that could be averted by scaling up 16 interventions in 60 countries. We bundled the interventions in a variety of existing maternal and child health packages according to time period of delivery and service delivery mode, and calculated the additional running costs of implementing these interventions at scale (90% coverage) in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The phased introduction and expansion of interventions was modelled to represent incremental strategies for scaling up neonatal care in developing country health systems. Increasing coverage of 16 interventions to 90% could save 0.59-1.08 million lives in South Asia annually at an additional cost of US dollars 0.90-1.76 billion. In sub-Saharan Africa, 0.45-0.80 million lives saved would cost US dollars 0.68-1.32 billion. Additional costs for increased antenatal interventions are low, but given relatively high baseline coverage and lower impact, fewer additional newborn lives can be saved through this package (5-10%). Intrapartum care has higher impact (19-34% of deaths averted) but is costly (US dollars 1.66-3.25 billion). Postnatal family-community care, with potential for high impact at low cost (10-27%, US dollars 0.38-0.75 billion), has been neglected. A first phase of scaling up care in 36 high (NMR 30-45) and 15 very high (NMR >45) mortality countries would cost approximately US dollars 0.56-1.10 and US dolars 0.09-0.17 billion annually, respectively, and would avert 15-32% and 13-29% of neonatal deaths, respectively, in these countries. Full coverage with all interventions in the 51 high and very high mortality countries would cost US dollars 2.23-4.37 billion, and avert 38-68% of neonatal deaths (1.13-2.05 million), at an extra cost per death averted of US dollars 1100-3900. Low-cost, effective newborn health interventions can save millions of lives, primarily in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Modelling costs and impact of intervention packages scaled up incrementally as health systems capacity increases can assist programme planning and help policy makers and donors identify stepwise targets for investments in newborn health.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMJ Glob Health
                BMJ Glob Health
                bmjgh
                bmjgh
                BMJ Global Health
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                2059-7908
                2020
                29 July 2020
                : 5
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]departmentAriadne Labs , Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health/Brigham and Women’s Hospital , Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                [2 ]Aurora Health Innovations , Bengaluru, India
                [3 ]Noora Health , San Francisco, California, USA
                [4 ]departmentCenter for Biomedical Informatics , Stanford University , Stanford, California, USA
                [5 ]departmentDepartment of Health Policy and Management , Harvard University TH Chan School of Public Health , Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                [6 ]Directorate of Health Services , Punjab, India
                [7 ]Directorate of Health & Family Welfare Services , Bangalore, Karnataka, India
                [8 ]departmentDirectorate of Public Health & Family Welfare , National Health Mission , Madhya Pradesh, India
                [9 ]departmentDivision of Global Health Equity & Department of Medicine , Brigham and Women’s Hospital , Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Laura Subramanian; lsubramanian@ 123456ariadnelabs.org
                Article
                bmjgh-2020-002660
                10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002660
                7394013
                32727842
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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                Funding
                Funded by: Noora Health;
                Funded by: Private philanthropic donors, foundations and corporate giving;
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                child health, health services research, public health

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