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      Phylogeography of Korean raccoon dogs: implications of peripheral isolation of a forest mammal in East Asia : Phylogeographic status of Korean raccoon dogs

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      Journal of Zoology
      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Plant molecular phylogeography in China and adjacent regions: Tracing the genetic imprints of Quaternary climate and environmental change in the world's most diverse temperate flora.

          The Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) of East Asia harbors the most diverse of the world's temperate flora, and was the most important glacial refuge for its Tertiary representatives ('relics') throughout Quaternary ice-age cycles. A steadily increasing number of phylogeographic studies in the SJFR of mainland China and adjacent areas, including the Qinghai-Tibetan-Plateau (QTP) and Sino-Himalayan region, have documented the population histories of temperate plant species in these regions. Here we review this current literature that challenges the oft-stated view of the SJFR as a glacial sanctuary for temperate plants, instead revealing profound effects of Quaternary changes in climate, topography, and/or sea level on the current genetic structure of such organisms. There are three recurrent phylogeographic scenarios identified by different case studies that broadly agree with longstanding biogeographic or palaeo-ecological hypotheses: (i) postglacial re-colonization of the QTP from (south-)eastern glacial refugia; (ii) population isolation and endemic species formation in Southwest China due to tectonic shifts and river course dynamics; and (iii) long-term isolation and species survival in multiple localized refugia of (warm-)temperate deciduous forest habitats in subtropical (Central/East/South) China. However, in four additional instances, phylogeographic findings seem to conflict with a priori predictions raised by palaeo-data, suggesting instead: (iv) glacial in situ survival of some hardy alpine herbs and forest trees on the QTP platform itself; (v) long-term refugial isolation of (warm-)temperate evergreen taxa in subtropical China; (vi) 'cryptic' glacial survival of (cool-)temperate deciduous forest trees in North China; and (vii) unexpectedly deep (Late Tertiary/early-to-mid Pleistocene) allopatric-vicariant differentiation of disjunct lineages in the East China-Japan-Korea region due to past sea transgressions. We discuss these and other consequences of the main phylogeographic findings in light of palaeo-environmental evidence, emphasize notable gaps in our knowledge, and outline future research prospects for disentangling the evolution and biogeographic history of the region's extremely diverse temperate flora. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            A comparative summary of genetic distances in the vertebrates from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

            Mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) is among the most extensively sequenced genes to date across the vertebrates. Here, we employ nearly 2,000 cytb gene sequences from GenBank to calculate and compare levels of genetic distance between sister species, congeneric species, and confamilial genera within and across the major vertebrate taxonomic classes. The results of these analyses parallel and reinforce some of the principal trends in genetic distance estimates previously reported in a summary of the multilocus allozyme literature. In particular, surveyed avian taxa on average show significantly less genetic divergence than do same-rank taxa surveyed in other vertebrate groups, notably amphibians and reptiles. Various biological possibilities and taxonomic "artifacts" are considered that might account for this pattern. Regardless of the explanation, by the yardstick of genetic divergence in this mtDNA gene, as well as genetic distances in allozymes, there is rather poor equivalency of taxonomic rank across some of the vertebrates.
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              Genetic Evidence for a Pleistocene Population Explosion

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Zoology
                J Zool
                Wiley-Blackwell
                09528369
                July 2013
                July 2013
                : 290
                : 3
                : 225-235
                Article
                10.1111/jzo.12031
                3acc8de2-8cd0-4976-bd91-866f2312c529
                © 2013

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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