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      Personality in the cockroach Diploptera punctata: Evidence for stability across developmental stages despite age effects on boldness

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          Abstract

          Despite a recent surge in the popularity of animal personality studies and their wide-ranging associations with various aspects of behavioural ecology, our understanding of the development of personality over ontogeny remains poorly understood. Stability over time is a central tenet of personality; ecological pressures experienced by an individual at different life stages may, however, vary considerably, which may have a significant effect on behavioural traits. Invertebrates often go through numerous discrete developmental stages and therefore provide a useful model for such research. Here we test for both differential consistency and age effects upon behavioural traits in the gregarious cockroach Diploptera punctata by testing the same behavioural traits in both juveniles and adults. In our sample, we find consistency in boldness, exploration and sociality within adults whilst only boldness was consistent in juveniles. Both boldness and exploration measures, representative of risk-taking behaviour, show significant consistency across discrete juvenile and adult stages. Age effects are, however, apparent in our data; juveniles are significantly bolder than adults, most likely due to differences in the ecological requirements of these life stages. Size also affects risk-taking behaviour since smaller adults are both bolder and more highly explorative. Whilst a behavioural syndrome linking boldness and exploration is evident in nymphs, this disappears by the adult stage, where links between other behavioural traits become apparent. Our results therefore indicate that differential consistency in personality can be maintained across life stages despite age effects on its magnitude, with links between some personality traits changing over ontogeny, demonstrating plasticity in behavioural syndromes.

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          Most cited references 57

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis.

          For the past 25 years NIH Image and ImageJ software have been pioneers as open tools for the analysis of scientific images. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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            Are animal personality traits linked to life-history productivity?

            Animal personality traits such as boldness, activity and aggressiveness have been described for many animal species. However, why some individuals are consistently bolder or more active than others, for example, is currently obscure. Given that life-history tradeoffs are common and known to promote inter-individual differences in behavior, we suggest that consistent individual differences in animal personality traits can be favored when those traits contribute to consistent individual differences in productivity (growth and/or fecundity). A survey of empirical studies indicates that boldness, activity and/or aggressiveness are positively related to food intake rates, productivity and other life-history traits in a wide range of taxa. Our conceptual framework sets the stage for a closer look at relationships between personality traits and life-history traits in animals.
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              Natal dispersal and personalities in great tits (Parus major).

              Dispersal is a major determinant of the dynamics and genetic structure of populations, and its consequences depend not only on average dispersal rates and distances, but also on the characteristics of dispersing and philopatric individuals. We investigated whether natal dispersal correlated with a predisposed behavioural trait: exploratory behaviour in novel environments. Wild great tits were caught in their natural habitat, tested the following morning in the laboratory using an open field test and released at the capture site. Natal dispersal correlated positively with parental and individual exploratory behaviour, using three independent datasets. First, fast-exploring parents had offspring that dispersed furthest. Second, immigrants were faster explorers than locally born birds. Third, post-fledging movements, comprising a major proportion of the variation in natal dispersal distances, were greater for fast females than for slow females. These findings suggest that parental behaviour influenced offspring natal dispersal either via parental behaviour per se (e.g. via post-fledging care) or by affecting the phenotype of their offspring (e.g. via their genes). Because this personality trait has a genetic basis, our results imply that genotypes differ in their dispersal distances. Therefore, the described patterns have profound consequences for the genetic composition of populations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                10 May 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
                [2 ]Department of Biological Sciences, University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom
                [3 ]School of Natural Sciences & Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
                [4 ]School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom
                University of Pretoria, SOUTH AFRICA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceptualization: CRS RFP CMH.

                • Data curation: CRS.

                • Formal analysis: CRS RFP.

                • Funding acquisition: CRS RFP.

                • Investigation: CRS.

                • Methodology: CRS RFP CMH.

                • Project administration: CRS RFP.

                • Resources: RFP.

                • Software: CRS RFP.

                • Supervision: RFP CMH.

                • Validation: CRS.

                • Visualization: CRS.

                • Writing – original draft: CRS.

                • Writing – review & editing: CRS RFP CMH.

                Article
                PONE-D-16-32310
                10.1371/journal.pone.0176564
                5425029
                28489864
                © 2017 Stanley et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 7, Pages: 23
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000770, University of Manchester;
                This work was funded by the Faculty of Life Sciences at the University of Manchester.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Personality
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Personality
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Life Cycles
                Nymphs
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Personality
                Personality Traits
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Personality
                Personality Traits
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Behavior
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Behavior
                Animal Behavior
                Behavioral Ecology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animal Behavior
                Behavioral Ecology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Behavioral Ecology
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Behavioral Ecology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animal Anatomy
                Antennae (Animal Physiology)
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animal Physiology
                Antennae (Animal Physiology)
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Cockroaches
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Personality
                Personality Differences
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Personality
                Personality Differences
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

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