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      Cholera outbreaks (2012) in three districts of Nepal reveal clonal transmission of multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae O1

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          Abstract

          Background

          Although endemic cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality each year in Nepal, lack of information about the causal bacterium often hinders cholera intervention and prevention. In 2012, diarrheal outbreaks affected three districts of Nepal with confirmed cases of mortality. This study was designed to understand the drug response patterns, source, and transmission of Vibrio cholerae associated with 2012 cholera outbreaks in Nepal.

          Methods

          V. cholerae (n = 28) isolated from 2012 diarrhea outbreaks {n = 22; Kathmandu (n = 12), Doti (n = 9), Bajhang (n = 1)}, and surface water (n = 6; Kathmandu) were tested for antimicrobial response. Virulence properties and DNA fingerprinting of the strains were determined by multi-locus genetic screening employing polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

          Results

          All V. cholerae strains isolated from patients and surface water were confirmed to be toxigenic, belonging to serogroup O1, Ogawa serotype, biotype El Tor, and possessed classical biotype cholera toxin (CTX). Double-mismatch amplification mutation assay (DMAMA)-PCR revealed the V. cholerae strains to possess the B-7 allele of ctx subunit B. DNA sequencing of tcpA revealed a point mutation at amino acid position 64 (N → S) while the ctxAB promoter revealed four copies of the tandem heptamer repeat sequence 5 '-TTTTGAT-3 '. V. cholerae possessed all the ORFs of the Vibrio seventh pandemic island (VSP)-I but lacked the ORFs 498–511 of VSP-II. All strains were multidrug resistant with resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), nalidixic acid (NA), and streptomycin (S); all carried the SXT genetic element. DNA sequencing and deduced amino acid sequence of gyrA and parC of the NA R strains (n = 4) revealed point mutations at amino acid positions 83 (S → I), and 85 (S → L), respectively. Similar PFGE ( NotI) pattern revealed the Nepalese V. cholerae to be clonal, and related closely with V. cholerae associated with cholera in Bangladesh and Haiti.

          Conclusions

          In 2012, diarrhea outbreaks in three districts of Nepal were due to transmission of multidrug resistant V. cholerae El Tor possessing cholera toxin ( ctx) B-7 allele, which is clonal and related closely with V. cholerae associated with cholera in Bangladesh and Haiti.

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          Most cited references39

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          Epidemiology, genetics, and ecology of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae.

          Cholera caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae is a major public health problem confronting developing countries, where outbreaks occur in a regular seasonal pattern and are particularly associated with poverty and poor sanitation. The disease is characterized by a devastating watery diarrhea which leads to rapid dehydration, and death occurs in 50 to 70% of untreated patients. Cholera is a waterborne disease, and the importance of water ecology is suggested by the close association of V. cholerae with surface water and the population interacting with the water. Cholera toxin (CT), which is responsible for the profuse diarrhea, is encoded by a lysogenic bacteriophage designated CTXPhi. Although the mechanism by which CT causes diarrhea is known, it is not clear why V. cholerae should infect and elaborate the lethal toxin in the host. Molecular epidemiological surveillance has revealed clonal diversity among toxigenic V. cholerae strains and a continual emergence of new epidemic clones. In view of lysogenic conversion by CTXPhi as a possible mechanism of origination of new toxigenic clones of V. cholerae, it appears that the continual emergence of new toxigenic strains and their selective enrichment during cholera outbreaks constitute an essential component of the natural ecosystem for the evolution of epidemic V. cholerae strains and genetic elements that mediate the transfer of virulence genes. The ecosystem comprising V. cholerae, CTXPhi, the aquatic environment, and the mammalian host offers an understanding of the complex relationship between pathogenesis and the natural selection of a pathogen.
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            Cholera.

            Despite more than a century of study, cholera still presents challenges and surprises to us. Throughout most of the 20th century, cholera was caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 serogroup and the disease was largely confined to Asia and Africa. However, the last decade of the 20th century has witnessed two major developments in the history of this disease. In 1991, a massive outbreak of cholera started in South America, the one continent previously untouched by cholera in this century. In 1992, an apparently new pandemic caused by a previously unknown serogroup of V. cholerae (O139) began in India and Bangladesh. The O139 epidemic has been occurring in populations assumed to be largely immune to V. cholerae O1 and has rapidly spread to many countries including the United States. In this review, we discuss all aspects of cholera, including the clinical microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of the disease. Special attention will be paid to the extraordinary advances that have been made in recent years in unravelling the molecular pathogenesis of this infection and in the development of new generations of vaccines to prevent it.
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              Cholera.

              Intestinal infection with Vibrio cholerae results in the loss of large volumes of watery stool, leading to severe and rapidly progressing dehydration and shock. Without adequate and appropriate rehydration therapy, severe cholera kills about half of affected individuals. Cholera toxin, a potent stimulator of adenylate cyclase, causes the intestine to secrete watery fluid rich in sodium, bicarbonate, and potassium, in volumes far exceeding the intestinal absorptive capacity. Cholera has spread from the Indian subcontinent where it is endemic to involve nearly the whole world seven times during the past 185 years. V cholerae serogroup O1, biotype El Tor, has moved from Asia to cause pandemic disease in Africa and South America during the past 35 years. A new serogroup, O139, appeared in south Asia in 1992, has become endemic there, and threatens to start the next pandemic. Research on case management of cholera led to the development of rehydration therapy for dehydrating diarrhoea in general, including the proper use of intravenous and oral rehydration solutions. Appropriate case management has reduced deaths from diarrhoeal disease by an estimated 3 million per year compared with 20 years ago. Vaccination was thought to have no role for cholera, but new oral vaccines are showing great promise.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                BMC Infect Dis
                BMC Infect. Dis
                BMC Infectious Diseases
                BioMed Central
                1471-2334
                2014
                15 July 2014
                : 14
                : 392
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Molecular Dynamics Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal
                [2 ]International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, GPO Box 128, 1000 Dhaka, Bangladesh
                [3 ]National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
                [4 ]Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
                [5 ]International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Article
                1471-2334-14-392
                10.1186/1471-2334-14-392
                4223374
                25022982
                3be0abd7-fe0a-4d1b-9929-234fdcd686fd
                Copyright © 2014 Dixit et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

                History
                : 29 August 2013
                : 11 July 2014
                Categories
                Research Article

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                transmission,antibiotic resistant,clonal,v. cholerae,cholera,nepal
                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                transmission, antibiotic resistant, clonal, v. cholerae, cholera, nepal

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