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      Does co-inoculation of mycorrhiza and Piriformospora indica fungi enhance the efficiency of chlorophyll fluorescence and essential oil composition in peppermint under irrigation with saline water from the Caspian Sea?

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          Abstract

          Symbiotic associations with endophytic fungi are ecologically important for medicinal and aromatic plants. Endophytic fungi highly affect the quantity and quality of herbal products. In this study, a pot experiment was carried out in the greenhouse to investigate the interactive effects of Piriformospora indica and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) inoculation on the chlorophyll fluorescence, essential oil composition, and antioxidant enzymes of peppermint under saline condition. The results showed that Fo, YNPQ, YNO, and NPQ values were obviously increased under salinity conditions, while essential oil content, chlorophyll a and b, gs, Fm, Fv, ETR, ФPSII and Fv/Fm ratio decreased by increasing salinity. In addition, salt induced the excess Na + uptake, whereas the opposite trend was observed for P and K +. The synergistic association of P. indica and AMF caused a considerable increase in the antioxidant ability, essential oil content, Fv/Fm ratio, ФPSII, and amount of P and K + uptake in salt-stressed plants. The main peppermint oil constituents, menthol, menthone, and 1,8-cineole increased considerably in inoculated plants. Besides, the applied endophytic fungi positively enhanced the ability of peppermint to alleviate the negative effect of the salinity stress.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis: a guide to good practice and understanding some new applications.

          Chlorophyll fluorescence is a non-invasive measurement of photosystem II (PSII) activity and is a commonly used technique in plant physiology. The sensitivity of PSII activity to abiotic and biotic factors has made this a key technique not only for understanding the photosynthetic mechanisms but also as a broader indicator of how plants respond to environmental change. This, along with low cost and ease of collecting data, has resulted in the appearance of a large array of instrument types for measurement and calculated parameters which can be bewildering for the new user. Moreover, its accessibility can lead to misuse and misinterpretation when the underlying photosynthetic processes are not fully appreciated. This review is timely because it sits at a point of renewed interest in chlorophyll fluorescence where fast measurements of photosynthetic performance are now required for crop improvement purposes. Here we help the researcher make choices in terms of protocols using the equipment and expertise available, especially for field measurements. We start with a basic overview of the principles of fluorescence analysis and provide advice on best practice for taking pulse amplitude-modulated measurements. We also discuss a number of emerging techniques for contemporary crop and ecology research, where we see continual development and application of analytical techniques to meet the new challenges that have arisen in recent years. We end the review by briefly discussing the emerging area of monitoring fluorescence, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, field phenotyping, and remote sensing of crops for yield and biomass enhancement.
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            Linking chlorophyll a fluorescence to photosynthesis for remote sensing applications: mechanisms and challenges.

            Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) has been used for decades to study the organization, functioning, and physiology of photosynthesis at the leaf and subcellular levels. ChlF is now measurable from remote sensing platforms. This provides a new optical means to track photosynthesis and gross primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Importantly, the spatiotemporal and methodological context of the new applications is dramatically different compared with most of the available ChlF literature, which raises a number of important considerations. Although we have a good mechanistic understanding of the processes that control the ChlF signal over the short term, the seasonal link between ChlF and photosynthesis remains obscure. Additionally, while the current understanding of in vivo ChlF is based on pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) measurements, remote sensing applications are based on the measurement of the passive solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which entails important differences and new challenges that remain to be solved. In this review we introduce and revisit the physical, physiological, and methodological factors that control the leaf-level ChlF signal in the context of the new remote sensing applications. Specifically, we present the basis of photosynthetic acclimation and its optical signals, we introduce the physical and physiological basis of ChlF from the molecular to the leaf level and beyond, and we introduce and compare PAM and SIF methodology. Finally, we evaluate and identify the challenges that still remain to be answered in order to consolidate our mechanistic understanding of the remotely sensed SIF signal.
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              Chlorophyll fluorescence: a probe of photosynthesis in vivo.

              The use of chlorophyll fluorescence to monitor photosynthetic performance in algae and plants is now widespread. This review examines how fluorescence parameters can be used to evaluate changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, linear electron flux, and CO(2) assimilation in vivo, and outlines the theoretical bases for the use of specific fluorescence parameters. Although fluorescence parameters can be measured easily, many potential problems may arise when they are applied to predict changes in photosynthetic performance. In particular, consideration is given to problems associated with accurate estimation of the PSII operating efficiency measured by fluorescence and its relationship with the rates of linear electron flux and CO(2) assimilation. The roles of photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching in the determination of changes in PSII operating efficiency are examined. Finally, applications of fluorescence imaging to studies of photosynthetic heterogeneity and the rapid screening of large numbers of plants for perturbations in photosynthesis and associated metabolism are considered.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: SoftwareRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                9 July 2021
                2021
                : 16
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
                [2 ] Department of Agronomy, Genetic and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
                United Arab Emirates University, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-21-02576
                10.1371/journal.pone.0254076
                8270468
                34242262
                © 2021 Khalvandi et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 14, Tables: 4, Pages: 21
                Product
                Funding
                There was no funding for this article. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Properties
                Salinity
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Physical Chemistry
                Chemical Properties
                Salinity
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Structures and Organelles
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Plant Cell Biology
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Cell Biology
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Types
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Plant Cell Biology
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Cell Biology
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials
                Pigments
                Organic Pigments
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Fungi
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Agronomy
                Plant Products
                Essential Oils
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Crop Science
                Plant Products
                Essential Oils
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Plant Physiology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Physiology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Species Interactions
                Symbiosis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Medicinal Plants
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Microbiology
                Microbial Physiology
                Fungal Physiology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Mycology
                Fungal Physiology
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

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