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      The Diversity of Cyanobacterial Toxins on Structural Characterization, Distribution and Identification: A Systematic Review


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          The widespread distribution of cyanobacteria in the aquatic environment is increasing the risk of water pollution caused by cyanotoxins, which poses a serious threat to human health. However, the structural characterization, distribution and identification techniques of cyanotoxins have not been comprehensively reviewed in previous studies. This paper aims to elaborate the existing information systematically on the diversity of cyanotoxins to identify valuable research avenues. According to the chemical structure, cyanotoxins are mainly classified into cyclic peptides, alkaloids, lipopeptides, nonprotein amino acids and lipoglycans. In terms of global distribution, the amount of cyanotoxins are unbalanced in different areas. The diversity of cyanotoxins is more obviously found in many developed countries than that in undeveloped countries. Moreover, the threat of cyanotoxins has promoted the development of identification and detection technology. Many emerging methods have been developed to detect cyanotoxins in the environment. This communication provides a comprehensive review of the diversity of cyanotoxins, and the detection and identification technology was discussed. This detailed information will be a valuable resource for identifying the various types of cyanotoxins which threaten the environment of different areas. The ability to accurately identify specific cyanotoxins is an obvious and essential aspect of cyanobacterial research.

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          Fluorescence in situ hybridization and catalyzed reporter deposition for the identification of marine bacteria.

          Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled oligonucleotide probes and tyramide signal amplification, also known as catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD), is currently not generally applicable to heterotrophic bacteria in marine samples. Penetration of the HRP molecule into bacterial cells requires permeabilization procedures that cause high and most probably species-selective cell loss. Here we present an improved protocol for CARD-FISH of marine planktonic and benthic microbial assemblages. After concentration of samples onto membrane filters and subsequent embedding of filters in low-gelling-point agarose, no decrease in bacterial cell numbers was observed during 90 min of lysozyme incubation (10 mg ml(-1) at 37 degrees C). The detection rates of coastal North Sea bacterioplankton by CARD-FISH with a general bacterial probe (EUB338-HRP) were significantly higher (mean, 94% of total cell counts; range, 85 to 100%) than that with a monolabeled probe (EUB338-mono; mean, 48%; range, 19 to 66%). Virtually no unspecific staining was observed after CARD-FISH with an antisense EUB338-HRP. Members of the marine SAR86 clade were undetectable by FISH with a monolabeled probe; however, a substantial population was visualized by CARD-FISH (mean, 7%; range, 3 to 13%). Detection rates of EUB338-HRP in Wadden Sea sediments (mean, 81%; range, 53 to 100%) were almost twice as high as the detection rates of EUB338-mono (mean, 44%; range, 25 to 71%). The enhanced fluorescence intensities and signal-to-background ratios make CARD-FISH superior to FISH with directly labeled oligonucleotides for the staining of bacteria with low rRNA content in the marine environment.
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            Lateral flow assays: Principles, designs and labels

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              Toxins of cyanobacteria.

              Blue-green algae are found in lakes, ponds, rivers and brackish waters throughout the world. In case of excessive growth such as bloom formation, these bacteria can produce inherent toxins in quantities causing toxicity in mammals, including humans. These cyanotoxins include cyclic peptides and alkaloids. Among the cyclic peptides are the microcystins and the nodularins. The alkaloids include anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(S), cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxins (STXs), aplysiatoxins and lyngbyatoxin. Both biological and chemical methods are used to determine cyanotoxins. Bioassays and biochemical assays are nonspecific, so they can only be used as screening methods. HPLC has some good prospects. For the subsequent detection of these toxins different detectors may be used, ranging from simple UV-spectrometry via fluorescence detection to various types of MS. The main problem in the determination of cyanobacterial toxins is the lack of reference materials of all relevant toxins. In general, toxicity data on cyanotoxins are rather scarce. A majority of toxicity data are known to be of microcystin-LR. For nodularins, data from a few animal studies are available. For the alkaloids, limited toxicity data exist for anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin and STX. Risk assessment for acute exposure could be relevant for some types of exposure. Nevertheless, no acute reference doses have formally been derived thus far. For STX(s), many countries have established tolerance levels in bivalves, but these limits were set in view of STX(s) as biotoxins, accumulating in marine shellfish. Official regulations for other cyanotoxins have not been established, although some (provisional) guideline values have been derived for microcystins in drinking water by WHO and several countries.

                Author and article information

                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                12 September 2019
                September 2019
                : 11
                : 9
                : 530
                [1 ]College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China; duxd1993@ 123456gs.zzu.edu.cn (X.D.); lhl2019@ 123456gs.zzu.edu.cn (H.L.); ylsir2018@ 123456gs.zzu.edu.cn (L.Y.); wangyueqin@ 123456gs.zzu.edu.cn (Y.W.); maya@ 123456gs.zzu.edu.cn (Y.M.); wangrui2019@ 123456gs.zzu.edu.cn (R.W.)
                [2 ]Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, St Mary’s University, San Antonio, TX 78228, USA; xchen@ 123456stmarytx.edu (X.C.); mlosiewicz@ 123456stmarytx.edu (M.D.L.)
                [3 ]College of Life Sciences, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: huizhenzhang@ 123456zzu.edu.cn (H.Z.); guohongxiang@ 123456henau.edu.cn (H.G.); Tel.: +86-151-8835-7252 (H.Z.); +86-136-4386-7952 (H.G.)
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 27 August 2019
                : 09 September 2019

                Molecular medicine
                cyanobacterial toxins,diversity,structural characterization,distribution,identification


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