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Square Wave Voltammetric Determination of Residues of Carbendazim Using a Fullerene/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Nafion\(\circledR \)/Coated Glassy Carbon Electrode

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      Abstract

      A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with a fullerene/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)/Nafion composite and applied to the determination of carbendazim, a fungicide. The voltammetric behavior of the analyte was investigated using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), on the bare GCE and on the same electrode coated by a thin film of the composite material. The electrode response was more than fourfold important on the modified electrode, due to electrical conductivity of fullerene and MWCNT and to favorable electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged Nafion and the protonated fungicide. A sensitive electroanalytical procedure based on Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV) was then developed to detect the analyte. Under the optimum conditions, a linear relationship was obtained between the peak current and the concentration of carbendazim, in the range from 2.0 × 10 −8 mol/L to 3.5 × 10 −7 mol/L, leading to a detection limit of 1.7 × 10 −8 mol/L and to a quantification limit of 5.57 × 10 −8 mol/L. The developed procedure was successfully applied to detect carbendazim upon adsorption by some ferritic soils.

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      Electrocatalytic Properties and Sensor Applications of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes

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        Multicomponent analysis of FTIR spectra; quantification of amorphous and crystallized mineral phases in synthetic and natural sediments

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          Multi-residue method for the analysis of 101 pesticides and their degradates in food and water samples by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

          A comprehensive multi-residue method for the chromatographic separation and accurate mass identification of 101 pesticides and their degradation products using liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS) is reported here. Several classes of compounds belonging to different chemical families (triazines, organophosphorous, carbamates, phenylureas, neonicotinoids, etc.) were carefully chosen to cover a wide range of applications in the environmental field. Excellent chromatographic separation was achieved by the use of narrow accurate mass windows (0.05 Da) in a 30 min interval. Accurate mass measurements were always below 2 ppm error for all the pesticides studied. A table compiling the accurate masses for 101 compounds together with the accurate mass of several fragment ions is included. At least the accurate mass for one main fragment ion for each pesticide was obtained to achieve the minimum of identification points according to the 2002/657/EC European Decision, thus fulfilling the EU point system requirement for identification of contaminants in samples. The method was validated with vegetable samples. Calibration curves were linear and covered two orders of magnitude (from 5 to 500 microg/L) for most of the compounds studied. Instrument detection limits (LODs) ranged from 0.04 to 150 microg/kg in green-pepper samples. The methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of vegetable and water samples containing pesticides and their degradation products. This paper serves as a guide for those working in the analytical field of pesticides, as well as a powerful tool for finding non-targets and unknowns in environmental samples that have not been previously included in any of the routine target multi-residue methods.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            International Journal of Electrochemistry
            International Journal of Electrochemistry
            Hindawi Limited
            2090-3529
            2090-3537
            2016
            2016
            : 2016
            :
            : 1-9
            10.1155/2016/7839708
            © 2016

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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