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      Prediction of Prognosis and Molecular Mechanism of Ferroptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Based on Bioinformatics Methods


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          As an iron-dependent type of programmed cell death, ferroptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been linked to the prognosis of patients with HCC in a number of studies. Nevertheless, the predictive value of lncRNAs (FRLs) associated with ferroptosis in HCC has not been fully elucidated.


          Download RNA sequencing data and clinical profiles of HCC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The FRLs associated with prognosis were determined by Pearson's correlation analysis. After that, prognostic signature for FRLs was established using Cox and LASSO regression analyses. Meanwhile, survival analysis, correlation analysis of clinicopathological features, Cox regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and nomogram were used to analyze the FRL signature's predictive capacity. The relationship between signature risk score, immune cell infiltration, and chemotherapy drug sensitivity is further studied.


          In total, 93 FRLs were found to be of prognostic value in patients with HCC. A five-FRL signature comprising AC015908.3, LINC01138, AC009283.1, Z83851.1, and LUCAT1 was created in order to enhance the prognosis prediction with HCC patients. The signature demonstrated a good predictive potency, according to the Kaplan-Meier and ROC curves. The five-FRL signature was found to be a risk factor independent of various clinical factors using Cox regression and stratified survival analysis. The high-risk group was shown to be enriched in tumorigenesis and immune-related pathways according to GSEA analysis. Additionally, immune cell infiltration, immune checkpoint molecules, and half-inhibitory concentrations differed considerably between risk groups, implying that this signature could be used to evaluate the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy and immunotherapy.


          The five-FRL risk signature is helpful for assessing the prognosis of HCC patients and improving therapy options, so it can be further applied clinically.

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          Ferroptosis: A Regulated Cell Death Nexus Linking Metabolism, Redox Biology, and Disease

          Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death characterized by the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides to lethal levels. Emerging evidence suggests that ferroptosis represents an ancient vulnerability caused by the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into cellular membranes, and cells have developed complex systems that exploit and defend against this vulnerability in different contexts. The sensitivity to ferroptosis is tightly linked to numerous biological processes, including amino acid, iron, and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and the biosynthesis of glutathione, phospholipids, NADPH, and coenzyme Q10. Ferroptosis has been implicated in the pathological cell death associated with degenerative diseases (i.e., Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases), carcinogenesis, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and kidney degeneration in mammals and is also implicated in heat stress in plants. Ferroptosis may also have a tumor-suppressor function that could be harnessed for cancer therapy. This Primer reviews the mechanisms underlying ferroptosis, highlights connections to other areas of biology and medicine, and recommends tools and guidelines for studying this emerging form of regulated cell death.
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            Current cancer situation in China: good or bad news from the 2018 Global Cancer Statistics?

            Cancer is the leading cause of death in China and depicting the cancer pattern of China would provide basic knowhows on how to tackle it more effectively. In this study we have reviewed several reports of cancer burden, including the Global cancer statistics 2018 and Cancer statistics in China, 2015, along with the GLOBCAN 2018 online database, to investigate the differences of cancer patterns between China, the United States (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK). An estimated 4.3 million new cancer cases and 2.9 million new cancer deaths occurred in China in 2018. Compared to the USA and UK, China has lower cancer incidence but a 30% and 40% higher cancer mortality than the UK and USA, among which 36.4% of the cancer-related deaths were from the digestive tract cancers (stomach, liver, and esophagus cancer) and have relatively poorer prognoses. In comparison, the digestive cancer deaths only took up ≤ 5% of the total cancer deaths in either USA or UK. Other reasons for the higher mortality in China may be the low rate of early-stage cancers at diagnosis and non-uniformed clinical cancer treatment strategies performed by different regions. China is undergoing the cancer transition stage where the cancer spectrum is changing from developing country to developed country, with a rapidly increase cancer burden of colorectal, prostate, female breast cancers in addition to a high occurrence of infection-related and digestive cancers. The incidence of westernized lifestyle-related cancers in China (i.e. colorectal cancer, prostate, bladder cancer) has risen but the incidence of the digestive cancers has decreased from 2000 to 2011. An estimated 40% of the risk factors can be attributed to environmental and lifestyle factors either in China or other developed countries. Tobacco smoking is the single most important carcinogenic risk factor in China, contributing to ~ 24.5% of cancers in males. Chronic infection is another important preventable cancer contributor which is responsible for ~ 17% of cancers. Comprehensive prevention and control strategies in China should include effective tobacco-control policy, recommendations for healthier lifestyles, along with enlarging the coverage of effective screening, educating, and vaccination programs to better sensitize greater awareness control to the general public.
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              The molecular machinery of regulated cell death

              Cells may die from accidental cell death (ACD) or regulated cell death (RCD). ACD is a biologically uncontrolled process, whereas RCD involves tightly structured signaling cascades and molecularly defined effector mechanisms. A growing number of novel non-apoptotic forms of RCD have been identified and are increasingly being implicated in various human pathologies. Here, we critically review the current state of the art regarding non-apoptotic types of RCD, including necroptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, entotic cell death, netotic cell death, parthanatos, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, alkaliptosis and oxeiptosis. The in-depth comprehension of each of these lethal subroutines and their intercellular consequences may uncover novel therapeutic targets for the avoidance of pathogenic cell loss.

                Author and article information

                Comput Math Methods Med
                Comput Math Methods Med
                Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
                21 June 2022
                : 2022
                : 4558782
                Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Ahmed Faeq Hussein

                Author information
                Copyright © 2022 Yuanpeng Xiong et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 24 April 2022
                : 1 June 2022
                : 3 June 2022
                Funded by: Health Commission of Jiangxi Province
                Award ID: 20191027
                Funded by: Key Research and Development Program of Jiangxi Province
                Award ID: 20192BBG70035
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province
                Award ID: 20202ACB206007
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81860418
                Research Article

                Applied mathematics
                Applied mathematics


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