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      Low and high input agricultural fields have different effects on pest aphid abundance via different invasive alien weed species

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      NeoBiota

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          We conducted field surveys to detect the population density of the most important invasive weed species and their associated virus vectoring aphids in crops grown under high input field (HIF) vs low-input field (LIF) conditions, with and without fertilizers and pesticides. The most frequent invasive weed species were Stenactisannua, Erigeroncanadensis and Solidagocanadensis. These species were hosts predominantly for the aphids Brachycaudushelichrysi and Aulacorthumsolani in both management systems. The 13% higher coverage of S.annua under LIF conditions resulted in a 30% higher B.helichrysi abundance and ~85% higher A.solani abundance compared with HIF conditions. Host plant quality was assessed by measuring peroxidase enzyme activity. There was a significantly increased POD activity at 10 μmol min −1 mg protein −1 unit in S.annua under LIF conditions, suggesting a higher stress by aphids under this management regime. The high colonization intensity of B.helichrysi on maize, potato and alfalfa crops were detected from both S.annua and E.canadensis. We conclude that new and faster methods need to be used to prevent colonization of such virus vectoring aphids and their host plants, even under low input regimes.

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          Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores.

          Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.
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            Associational Resistance and Associational Susceptibility: Having Right or Wrong Neighbors

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              Conservation policy in traditional farming landscapes

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NeoBiota
                NB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2488
                1619-0033
                March 13 2019
                March 13 2019
                : 43
                : 27-45
                Article
                10.3897/neobiota.43.31553
                © 2019

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