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HIV-1 endocytosis in astrocytes: a kiss of death or survival of the fittest?

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      Abstract

      The brain is a target of HIV-1 and serves as an important viral reservoir. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell in the human brain, are involved in brain plasticity and neuroprotection. Several studies have reported HIV-1 infection of astrocytes in cell cultures and infected brain tissues. The prevailing concept is that HIV-1 infection of astrocytes leads to latent infection. Here, we provide our perspective on endocytosis-mediated HIV-1 entry and its fate in astrocytes. Natural entry of HIV-1 into astrocytes occurs via endocytosis. However, endocytosis of HIV-1 in astrocytes is a natural death trap where the majority of virus particles are degraded in endosomes and a few which escape intact lead to successful infection. Thus, regardless of artificial fine-tuning (treatment with cytokines or proinflammatory products) done to astrocytes, HIV-1 does not infect them efficiently unless the viral entry route or the endosomal enzymatic machinery has been manipulated.

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      Affiliations
      [1 ] Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29209, United States; Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29209, United States. Electronic address: Ashok.Chauhan@uscmed.sc.edu.
      [2 ] Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29209, United States.
      Journal
      Neurosci. Res.
      Neuroscience research
      1872-8111
      0168-0102
      Nov 2014
      : 88
      25219546
      S0168-0102(14)00189-8
      10.1016/j.neures.2014.08.013
      4452007
      NIHMS627050
      Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

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