To investigate the functional aspects of secretory-phase endometrium, hysteroscopy was performed in 61 patients for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), and 50 women for infertility evaluation. All women had normal ovulatory cycles. The hysteroscopic assessment of secretory-phase endometrium was made by characterizing the glandular openings (GO) and vasculature. The assessments were classified as ‘good’: characterized by ring-type GO and well-developed vessels; and ‘poor’: characterized by dot and/or punctate-type GO and fine vasculature. In the 30 patients classified ‘good’ prior to the IVF cycle, there was a higher pregnancy rate (40%) than in ‘poor’ ones (13%). Thirty of 50 infertile women were classified ‘good’, and their average age was lower than that of the remaining 20 in the ‘poor’ group. Preovulatory estradiol was significantly higher in the ‘good’ than in the ‘poor’ group. From an analysis of 20 patients with a ‘poor’ assessment, it was demonstrated that the maturation of secretory-phase endometrium was affected by a failure of folliculogenesis, progesterone secretion, endometrial growth and menstrual shedding.