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      Spatial and seasonal variations of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in the Atibaia River, São Paulo State (Brazil)

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          Abstract

          A single run optimization chromatographic method for the determination of 15 emerging contaminants in surface water was optimized using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection through ultraviolet-diode array (UV-DAD) or fluorescence (FLD). Selected compounds included acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, caffeine, 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, 17α-ethynylestradiol, levonorgestrel, diethylphthalate, dibutylphthalate, 4-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A. Quality parameters of the proposed method showed a linearity r² > 0.996, coefficient of variation lower than 5%, recoveries between 80 to 120% for a spike of 10 µg L-1 for each of the 15 compounds. The lowest limit of detection (LOD) was 38 ng L-1 for caffeine, whereas the highest value was 170 ng L-1 for ibuprofen. The method was applied to the spatial and seasonal monitoring of these compounds in the Atibaia River, which is the main drinking water source for Campinas City (São Paulo State, Brazil). Among the 15 selected emerging contaminants, 10 were detected at least once. The lowest concentration determined was 0.096 µg L-1 for diclofenac, whereas caffeine showed concentrations as high as 127 µg L-1.

          Translated abstract

          Um método foi otimizado usando extração em fase sólida (SPE) e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) com detecção por ultravioleta com arranjo de diodos (UV/DAD) ou fluorescência (FLD) para a determinação de 15 contaminantes emergentes em águas superficiais, a saber: acetoaminofenol, ácido salicílico, diclofenaco, ibuprofeno, cafeína, 17β-estradiol, estrona, progesterona, 17α-etinilestradiol, levonorgestrel, dietilftalato, dibutilftalato, 4-octilfenol, 4-nonilfenol e bisfenol A. Os parâmetros de qualidade do método proposto mostraram a linearidade com r² > 0,996, coeficiente de variação menor que 5%, recuperações entre 80 e 120% para Milli-Q fortificada com 10 µg L-1 de cada um dos quinze compostos. O menor limite de detecção (LOD) foi 38 ng L-1 para cafeína e o maior 170 ng L-1 para ibuprofeno. O método foi aplicado para o monitoramento espacial e sazonal destes compostos na bacia do rio Atibaia, principal manancial de abastecimento público da cidade de Campinas-SP, Brasil. Dentre os 15 contaminantes emergentes estudados, 10 foram detectados em pelo menos uma amostra. A menor concentração determinada foi de 0,096 µg L-1 para o diclofenaco e a maior foi de 127 µg L-1 para cafeína.

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          Most cited references43

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          Statistics and chemometrics for analytical chemistry

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            Pesquisa Nacional de Saneamento Básico - 2000

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              The Merck Index

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                jbchs
                Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society
                J. Braz. Chem. Soc.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Química (São Paulo )
                1678-4790
                August 2011
                : 22
                : 8
                : 1452-1462
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Estadual de Campinas Brazil
                Article
                S0103-50532011000800008
                10.1590/S0103-50532011000800008
                4016f189-3515-4f23-a204-d2055b112234

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: website
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0103-5053&lng=en
                Categories
                CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

                General chemistry
                pharmaceuticals,endocrine disruptors compounds,solid-phase extraction,liquid chromatography with diode array detection,liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection,Atibaia River Basin

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