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The Fate of a Hapten - From the Skin to Modification of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Lymph Nodes

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      Abstract

      Skin (contact) allergy, the most prevalent form of immunotoxicity in humans, is caused by low molecular weight chemicals (haptens) that penetrate stratum corneum and modify endogenous proteins. The fate of haptens after cutaneous absorption, especially what protein(s) they react with, is largely unknown. In this study the fluorescent hapten tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC) was used to identify hapten-protein conjugates in the local lymph nodes after topical application, as they play a key role in activation of the adaptive immune system. TRITC interacted with dendritic cells but also with T and B cells in the lymph nodes as shown by flow cytometry. Identification of the most abundant TRITC-modified protein in lymph nodes by tandem mass spectrometry revealed TRITC-modification of the N-terminal proline of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) – an evolutionary well-conserved protein involved in cell-mediated immunity and inflammation. This is the first time a hapten-modified protein has been identified in lymph nodes after topical administration of the hapten. Most haptens are electrophiles and can therefore modify the N-terminal proline of MIF, which has an unusually reactive amino group under physiological conditions; thus, modification of MIF by haptens may have an immunomodulating role in contact allergy as well as in other immunotoxicity reactions.

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      Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: a regulator of innate immunity.

      For more than a quarter of a century, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been a mysterious cytokine. In recent years, MIF has assumed an important role as a pivotal regulator of innate immunity. MIF is an integral component of the host antimicrobial alarm system and stress response that promotes the pro-inflammatory functions of immune cells. A rapidly increasing amount of literature indicates that MIF is implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, suggesting that MIF-directed therapies might offer new treatment opportunities for human diseases in the future.
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        Dynamics and function of Langerhans cells in vivo: dermal dendritic cells colonize lymph node areas distinct from slower migrating Langerhans cells.

        Langerhans cells (LCs) are prominent dendritic cells (DCs) in epithelia, but their role in immunity is poorly defined. To track and discriminate LCs from dermal DCs in vivo, we developed knockin mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the langerin (CD207) gene. By using vital imaging, we showed that most EGFP(+) LCs were sessile under steady-state conditions, whereas skin inflammation induced LC motility and emigration to lymph nodes (LNs). After skin immunization, dermal DCs arrived in LNs first and colonized areas distinct from slower migrating LCs. LCs reaching LNs under steady-state or inflammatory conditions expressed similar levels of costimulatory molecules. Langerin and EGFP were also expressed on thymic DCs and on blood-derived, CD8alpha(+) DCs from all secondary lymphoid organs. By using a similar knockin strategy involving a diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) fused to EGFP, we demonstrated that LCs were dispensable for triggering hapten-specific T cell effectors through skin immunization.
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          MIF is a pituitary-derived cytokine that potentiates lethal endotoxaemia.

          Cytokines are critical in the often fatal cascade of events that cause septic shock. One regulatory system that is likely to be important in controlling inflammatory responses is the neuroendocrine axis. The pituitary, for example, is ideally situated to integrate central and peripheral stimuli, and initiates the increase in systemic glucocorticoids that accompanies host stress responses. To assess further the contribution of the pituitary to systemic inflammatory processes, we examined the secretory profile of cultured pituitary cells and whole pituitaries in vivo after stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we identify macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as a major secreted protein release by anterior pituitary cells in response to LPS stimulation. Serum analysis of control, hypophysectomized and T-cell-deficient (nude) mice suggests that pituitary-derived MIF contributes to circulating MIF present in the post-acute phase of endotoxaemia. Recombinant murine MIF greatly enhances lethality when co-injected with LPS and anti-MIF antibody confers full protection against lethal endotoxaemia. We conclude that MIF plays a central role in the toxic response to endotoxaemia and possibly septic shock.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9377, GRID grid.10548.38, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, , Stockholm University, ; Stockholm, Sweden
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9919 9582, GRID grid.8761.8, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Dermatochemistry, , University of Gothenburg, ; Gothenburg, Sweden
            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5924-6123, isabella.karlsson@aces.su.se
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2045-2322
            13 February 2018
            13 February 2018
            2018
            : 8
            29440696
            5811565
            21327
            10.1038/s41598-018-21327-8
            © The Author(s) 2018

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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