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      Children With Medical Complexity And Medicaid: Spending And Cost Savings

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          A small but growing population of children with medical complexity, many of whom are covered by Medicaid, accounts for a high proportion of pediatric health care spending. We first describe the expenditures for children with medical complexity insured by Medicaid across the care continuum. We report the increasingly large amount of spending on hospital care for these children, relative to the small amount of primary care and home care spending. We then present a business case that estimates how cost savings might be achieved for children with medical complexity from potential reductions in hospital and emergency department use and shows how the savings could underwrite investments in outpatient and community care. We conclude by discussing the importance of these findings in the context of Medicaid's quality of care and health care reform.

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          Pediatric complex chronic conditions classification system version 2: updated for ICD-10 and complex medical technology dependence and transplantation

          Background The pediatric complex chronic conditions (CCC) classification system, developed in 2000, requires revision to accommodate the International Classification of Disease 10th Revision (ICD-10). To update the CCC classification system, we incorporated ICD-9 diagnostic codes that had been either omitted or incorrectly specified in the original system, and then translated between ICD-9 and ICD-10 using General Equivalence Mappings (GEMs). We further reviewed all codes in the ICD-9 and ICD-10 systems to include both diagnostic and procedural codes indicative of technology dependence or organ transplantation. We applied the provisional CCC version 2 (v2) system to death certificate information and 2 databases of health utilization, reviewed the resulting CCC classifications, and corrected any misclassifications. Finally, we evaluated performance of the CCC v2 system by assessing: 1) the stability of the system between ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes using data which included both ICD-9 codes and ICD-10 codes; 2) the year-to-year stability before and after ICD-10 implementation; and 3) the proportions of patients classified as having a CCC in both the v1 and v2 systems. Results The CCC v2 classification system consists of diagnostic and procedural codes that incorporate a new neonatal CCC category as well as domains of complexity arising from technology dependence or organ transplantation. CCC v2 demonstrated close comparability between ICD-9 and ICD-10 and did not detect significant discontinuity in temporal trends of death in the United States. Compared to the original system, CCC v2 resulted in a 1.0% absolute (10% relative) increase in the number of patients identified as having a CCC in national hospitalization dataset, and a 0.4% absolute (24% relative) increase in a national emergency department dataset. Conclusions The updated CCC v2 system is comprehensive and multidimensional, and provides a necessary update to accommodate widespread implementation of ICD-10.
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            Children with medical complexity: an emerging population for clinical and research initiatives.

            Children with medical complexity (CMC) have medical fragility and intensive care needs that are not easily met by existing health care models. CMC may have a congenital or acquired multisystem disease, a severe neurologic condition with marked functional impairment, and/or technology dependence for activities of daily living. Although these children are at risk of poor health and family outcomes, there are few well-characterized clinical initiatives and research efforts devoted to improving their care. In this article, we present a definitional framework of CMC that consists of substantial family-identified service needs, characteristic chronic and severe conditions, functional limitations, and high health care use. We explore the diversity of existing care models and apply the principles of the chronic care model to address the clinical needs of CMC. Finally, we suggest a research agenda that uses a uniform definition to accurately describe the population and to evaluate outcomes from the perspectives of the child, the family, and the broader health care system.
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              Deaths attributed to pediatric complex chronic conditions: national trends and implications for supportive care services.

              Children with complex chronic conditions (CCCs) might benefit from pediatric supportive care services, such as home nursing, palliative care, or hospice, especially those children whose conditions are severe enough to cause death. We do not know, however, the extent of this population or how it is changing over time. To identify trends over the past 2 decades in the pattern of deaths attributable to pediatric CCCs, examining counts and rates of CCC-attributed deaths by cause and age (infancy: <1 year old, childhood: 1-9 years old, adolescence or young adulthood: 10-24 years old) at the time of death, and to determine the average number of children living within the last 6 months of their lives. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using national death certificate data and census estimates from the National Center for Health Statistics. Participants included all people 0 to 24 years old in the United States from 1979 to 1997. CCCs comprised a broad array of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for cardiac, malignancy, neuromuscular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, immunodeficiency, metabolic, genetic, and other congenital anomalies. Trends of counts and rates were tested using negative binomial regression. Of the 1.75 million deaths that occurred in 0- to 24-year-olds from 1979 to 1997, 5% were attributed to cancer CCCs, 16% to noncancer CCCs, 43% to injuries, and 37% to all other causes of death. Overall, both counts and rates of CCC-attributed deaths have trended downward, with declines more pronounced and statistically significant for noncancer CCCs among infants and children, and for cancer CCCs among children, adolescents, and young adults. In 1997, deaths attributed to all CCCs accounted for 7242 infant deaths, 2835 childhood deaths, and 5109 adolescent deaths. Again, in 1997, the average numbers of children alive who would die because of a CCC within the ensuing 6-month period were 1097 infants, 1414 children, and 2548 adolescents or young adults. Population-based planning of pediatric supportive care services should use measures that best inform our need to provide care for time-limited events (perideath or bereavement care) versus care for ongoing needs (home nursing or hospice). Pediatric supportive care services will need to serve patients with a broad range of CCCs from infancy into adulthood.

                Author and article information

                Health Affairs
                Health Affairs
                Health Affairs (Project Hope)
                December 2014
                December 2014
                : 33
                : 12
                : 2199-2206
                [1 ] Jay G. Berry ( ) is an assistant professor of pediatrics in the Department of Medicine and Division of General Pediatrics, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, in Massachusetts.
                [2 ] Matt Hall is a senior statistician at the Children’s Hospital Association, in Overland Park, Kansas.
                [3 ] John Neff is a professor of pediatrics at the University of Washington and Seattle Children’s Hospital.
                [4 ] Denise Goodman is a professor of pediatrics at the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, and the Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital, in Chicago, Illinois.
                [5 ] Eyal Cohen is an associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Toronto and the Hospital for Sick Children, in Ontario.
                [6 ] Rishi Agrawal is an assistant professor of pediatrics at the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, and the Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital.
                [7 ] Dennis Kuo is an associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children’s Hospital, both in Little Rock.
                [8 ] Chris Feudtner is a professor of pediatrics in the Division of General Pediatrics, PolicyLab, and Department of Medical Ethics at the University of Pennsylvania and the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania.
                © 2014


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