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      Unsupervised Anomaly Detection with Generative Adversarial Networks to Guide Marker Discovery

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          Abstract

          Obtaining models that capture imaging markers relevant for disease progression and treatment monitoring is challenging. Models are typically based on large amounts of data with annotated examples of known markers aiming at automating detection. High annotation effort and the limitation to a vocabulary of known markers limit the power of such approaches. Here, we perform unsupervised learning to identify anomalies in imaging data as candidates for markers. We propose AnoGAN, a deep convolutional generative adversarial network to learn a manifold of normal anatomical variability, accompanying a novel anomaly scoring scheme based on the mapping from image space to a latent space. Applied to new data, the model labels anomalies, and scores image patches indicating their fit into the learned distribution. Results on optical coherence tomography images of the retina demonstrate that the approach correctly identifies anomalous images, such as images containing retinal fluid or hyperreflective foci.

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          A review of novelty detection

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            Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images.

            With the introduction of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), much larger image datasets are routinely acquired compared to what was possible using the previous generation of time-domain OCT. Thus, the need for 3-D segmentation methods for processing such data is becoming increasingly important. We report a graph-theoretic segmentation method for the simultaneous segmentation of multiple 3-D surfaces that is guaranteed to be optimal with respect to the cost function and that is directly applicable to the segmentation of 3-D spectral OCT image data. We present two extensions to the general layered graph segmentation method: the ability to incorporate varying feasibility constraints and the ability to incorporate true regional information. Appropriate feasibility constraints and cost functions were learned from a training set of 13 spectral-domain OCT images from 13 subjects. After training, our approach was tested on a test set of 28 images from 14 subjects. An overall mean unsigned border positioning error of 5.69+/-2.41 microm was achieved when segmenting seven surfaces (six layers) and using the average of the manual tracings of two ophthalmologists as the reference standard. This result is very comparable to the measured interobserver variability of 5.71+/-1.98 microm.
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              High-dimensional and large-scale anomaly detection using a linear one-class SVM with deep learning

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2017-03-17
                Article
                1703.05921

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                To be published in the proceedings of the international conference on Information Processing in Medical Imaging (IPMI), 2017
                cs.CV cs.LG

                Computer vision & Pattern recognition, Artificial intelligence

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