The effect of systemic administration of various doses of dopamine (DA) and apomorphine (APM) on plasma gonadotropin and prolactin (Prl) concentrations in ovariectomized (OVX) as well as in ovariectomized, estrogen-progesterone (OEP)-primed rats bearing indwelling jugular venous catheters was evaluated. Intravenous (i.v.) infusion or pulse injection of 0.9% NaCl had no significant effect on plasma titers of LH or Prl. I.v. infusion of DA at 4 µg/kg-b.w./min induced a progressive increase in circulating LH concentration in OEP rats while infusion at a similar dose in OVX animals had no effect on plasma LH. I.v. injection of 100 µg DA or APM significantly increased LH at 15 min in OVX rats. Similarly, in OEP rats 100 µg of DA elevated plasma LH at 30 and 90 min while APM induced a significant elevation of plasma LH at 15 min after injection. In OVX rats injection of DA i.p. at a dose of 5 mg/kg-b.w. did not alter plasma LH levels, but a dose of 50 mg/kg-b.w. produced a significant reduction in plasma LH concentration. APM injected i.p. at either 5 or 50 mg/kg-b.w. doses was nearly equally effective in lowering plasma LH and the suppressive effect was significantly greater than with similar doses of DA. A single injection of LH-RH (100 ng in 0.2 ml of 0.9% NaCl) in animals pretreated 15 min earlier with an effective dose of APM (5 mg/kg-b.w.) produced a peak increase in LH titers 15 min after injection. The increment in plasma LH following LH-RH in APM-treated rats was comparable to that in rats which had received saline instead of APM. Prl levels were significantly lowered by each dose of DA and APM in OVX as well as in OEP rats. There was no significant change in plasma FSH titers induced by either drug in any of the experiments. It is concluded that DA may have different actions depending upon the dose and the endocrine state of the animal. Thus, i.v. infusion of low doses of DA in OEP animals or by pulse injection in both OVX and OEP rats can elevate plasma LH by activating the release of LH-RH from the hypothalamus, while large doses of DA in OVX animals may suppress the release of LH-RH.