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      Genome-wide analysis in vivo of translation with nucleotide resolution using ribosome profiling.

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          Abstract

          Techniques for systematically monitoring protein translation have lagged far behind methods for measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Here, we present a ribosome-profiling strategy that is based on the deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments and enables genome-wide investigation of translation with subcodon resolution. We used this technique to monitor translation in budding yeast under both rich and starvation conditions. These studies defined the protein sequences being translated and found extensive translational control in both determining absolute protein abundance and responding to environmental stress. We also observed distinct phases during translation that involve a large decrease in ribosome density going from early to late peptide elongation as well as widespread regulated initiation at non-adenine-uracil-guanine (AUG) codons. Ribosome profiling is readily adaptable to other organisms, making high-precision investigation of protein translation experimentally accessible.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Science
          Science (New York, N.Y.)
          American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
          1095-9203
          0036-8075
          Apr 10 2009
          : 324
          : 5924
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, and California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ingolia@cmp.ucsf.edu
          Article
          1168978 NIHMS131482
          10.1126/science.1168978
          2746483
          19213877
          427b347c-c26d-46fe-95cb-b5b23cb16b3a
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