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      Occurrence of the potent mutagens 2- nitrobenzanthrone and 3-nitrobenzanthrone in fine airborne particles

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          Abstract

          Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are known due to their mutagenic activity. Among them, 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) are considered as two of the most potent mutagens found in atmospheric particles. In the present study 2-NBA, 3-NBA and selected PAHs and Nitro-PAHs were determined in fine particle samples (PM 2.5) collected in a bus station and an outdoor site. The fuel used by buses was a diesel-biodiesel (96:4) blend and light-duty vehicles run with any ethanol-to-gasoline proportion. The concentrations of 2-NBA and 3-NBA were, on average, under 14.8 µg g −1 and 4.39 µg g −1, respectively. In order to access the main sources and formation routes of these compounds, we performed ternary correlations and multivariate statistical analyses. The main sources for the studied compounds in the bus station were diesel/biodiesel exhaust followed by floor resuspension. In the coastal site, vehicular emission, photochemical formation and wood combustion were the main sources for 2-NBA and 3-NBA as well as the other PACs. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) were calculated for both places, which presented low values, showing low cancer risk incidence although the ILCR values for the bus station were around 2.5 times higher than the ILCR from the coastal site.

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          Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

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            Real-time Environmental Applications and Display sYstem: READY

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              Time to Say Goodbye to the 16 EPA PAHs? Toward an Up-to-Date Use of PACs for Environmental Purposes

              The 16 EPA PAHs have played an exceptionally large role above all in environmental and analytical sciences in the last 40 years, but now there are good reasons to question their utility in many circumstances even though their use is so established and comfortable. Here we review the reasons why the list has been so successful and why sometimes it is seen as less relevant. Three groups of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are missing: larger and highly relevant PAHs, alkylated PACs, and compounds containing heteroatoms. Attempts to improve the situation for certain matrixes are known and here: (1) an updated list of PAHs (including the 16 EPA PAHs) for the evaluation of the toxicity in the environment (40 EnvPAHs); (2) a list of 23 NSO-heterocyclic compounds and 6 heterocyclic metabolites; and (3) lists of 10 oxy-PAHs and 10 nitro-PAHs are proposed for practical use in the future. A discussion in the scientific community about these lists is invited. Although the state of knowledge has improved dramatically since the introduction of the 16 EPA PAHs in the 1970s, this summary also shows that more research is needed about the toxicity, occurrence in the environment and chemical analysis, particularly of alkylated PAHs, higher molecular weight PAHs and substituted PACs such as amino-PAHs, cyano-PAHs, etc.. We also suggest that a long overdue discussion of an update of regulatory environmental PAH analysis is initiated.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jailsondeandrade@gmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                9 January 2019
                9 January 2019
                2019
                : 9
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0372 8259, GRID grid.8399.b, Instituto de Química, , Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Ondina, ; 40170-115 Salvador, BA Brazil
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0372 8259, GRID grid.8399.b, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Energia e Ambiente - INCT, , Universidade Federal da Bahia, ; 40170-115 Salvador, BA Brazil
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0372 8259, GRID grid.8399.b, Centro Interdisciplinar em Energia e Ambiente - CIEnAm, , Universidade Federal da Bahia, ; 40170-115 Salvador, BA Brazil
                [4 ]SENAI-CIMATEC University Center, 41650-110 Salvador, Bahia Brazil
                Article
                37186
                10.1038/s41598-018-37186-2
                6327027
                30626917
                45048385-b0df-4438-b67c-873dfb6320c0
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 8 May 2018
                : 30 November 2018
                Funding
                Funded by: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Centro de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Marinha do Brasil, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) FAPESB, No 8164/2014 and No 2159/ 2012
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