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      Occurrence of the potent mutagens 2- nitrobenzanthrone and 3-nitrobenzanthrone in fine airborne particles

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          Abstract

          Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are known due to their mutagenic activity. Among them, 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) are considered as two of the most potent mutagens found in atmospheric particles. In the present study 2-NBA, 3-NBA and selected PAHs and Nitro-PAHs were determined in fine particle samples (PM 2.5) collected in a bus station and an outdoor site. The fuel used by buses was a diesel-biodiesel (96:4) blend and light-duty vehicles run with any ethanol-to-gasoline proportion. The concentrations of 2-NBA and 3-NBA were, on average, under 14.8 µg g −1 and 4.39 µg g −1, respectively. In order to access the main sources and formation routes of these compounds, we performed ternary correlations and multivariate statistical analyses. The main sources for the studied compounds in the bus station were diesel/biodiesel exhaust followed by floor resuspension. In the coastal site, vehicular emission, photochemical formation and wood combustion were the main sources for 2-NBA and 3-NBA as well as the other PACs. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) were calculated for both places, which presented low values, showing low cancer risk incidence although the ILCR values for the bus station were around 2.5 times higher than the ILCR from the coastal site.

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          Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

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            Real-time Environmental Applications and Display sYstem: READY

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              The formation of nitro-PAH from the gas-phase reactions of fluoranthene and pyrene with the OH radical in the presence of NOx

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jailsondeandrade@gmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                9 January 2019
                9 January 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0372 8259, GRID grid.8399.b, Instituto de Química, , Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Ondina, ; 40170-115 Salvador, BA Brazil
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0372 8259, GRID grid.8399.b, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Energia e Ambiente - INCT, , Universidade Federal da Bahia, ; 40170-115 Salvador, BA Brazil
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0372 8259, GRID grid.8399.b, Centro Interdisciplinar em Energia e Ambiente - CIEnAm, , Universidade Federal da Bahia, ; 40170-115 Salvador, BA Brazil
                [4 ]SENAI-CIMATEC University Center, 41650-110 Salvador, Bahia Brazil
                Article
                37186
                10.1038/s41598-018-37186-2
                6327027
                30626917
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Centro de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Marinha do Brasil, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) FAPESB, No 8164/2014 and No 2159/ 2012
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