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      Origen y evolución de la papa cultivada. Una revisión Translated title: Origins and evolution of cultivated potato. A review

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          Abstract

          Las primeras papas cultivadas probablemente fueron seleccionadas entre 6.000 y 10.000 años atrás, al norte del lago Titicaca, en los Andes del sur de Perú. Allí, a partir de las especies silvestres Solanum bukasovii, S. canasense y S. multissectum, pertenecientes al complejo S. brevicaule, se cree que se originó S. stenotomum, que es considerada la primera papa domesticada. Esta, a su vez, habría dado origen a S. andigena a través de repetidos procesos de poliploidización sexual en diferentes zonas de cultivo, con la consiguiente hibridación interespecífica e intervarietal que permitió ampliar la diversidad y adaptabilidad genética de la papa de los Andes. Los cultivares chilenos se derivaron posteriormente por hibridación de poblaciones andinas cultivadas con la especie silvestre S. tarijense. En el siglo XVI la papa migró a Europa y se dispersó por todo el orbe. Actualmente las papas cultivadas que se siembran en el mundo son conocidas colectivamente bajo el nombre de S. tuberosum.

          Translated abstract

          Potato was domesticated some 6,000 to 10,000 years ago in the southern Andes of Peru, north from Lake Titicaca. The process is believed to have started from a set of wild species of the Solanum brevicaule complex (S. bukasovii, S. canasense and S. multissectum) that would have given origin to S. stenotomum, which is probably the first domesticated potato, and the immediate ancestor of S. andigena through repeated sexual polyploidization processes in different cultivation zones. The consequent interspecific and inter-varietal hybridization of this species broadened the genetic diversity and adaptability of Andean potatoes, whose subsequent breeding with the wild species S. tarijense gave rise to the Chilean cultivars. In the sixteenth century, potato migrated to Europe and then spread worldwide. Presently, cultivated potatoes are collectively designated under the name S. tuberosum.

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          A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping.

          The cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, ultimately traces its origin to Andean and Chilean landraces developed by pre-Colombian cultivators. These Andean landraces exhibit tremendous morphological and genetic diversity, and are distributed throughout the Andes, from western Venezuela to northern Argentina, and in southern Chile. The wild species progenitors of these landraces have long been in dispute, but all hypotheses center on a group of approximately 20 morphologically very similar tuber-bearing (Solanum section Petota) wild taxa referred to as the S. brevicaule complex, distributed from central Peru to northern Argentina. We present phylogenetic analyses based on the representative cladistic diversity of 362 individual wild (261) and landrace (98) members of potato (all tuber-bearing) and three outgroup non-tuber-bearing members of Solanum section Etuberosum, genotyped with 438 robust amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Our analyses are consistent with a hypothesis of a "northern" (Peru) and "southern" (Bolivia and Argentina) cladistic split for members of the S. brevicaule complex, and with the need for considerable reduction of species in the complex. In contrast to all prior hypotheses, our data support a monophyletic origin of the landrace cultivars from the northern component of this complex in Peru, rather than from multiple independent origins from various northern and southern members.
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            The evolution of cultivated potatoes

            Paul Grun (1990)
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              Origin and evolution of Andigena potatoes revealed by chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers.

              Andigena potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. andigena Hawkes) (2n = 4x = 48) are important, native-farmer-selected cultivars in the Andes, which form a primary gene pool for improving a worldwide grown potato (S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). To elucidate the origin of Andigena, 196 Andigena accessions were compared with 301 accessions of 33 closely related cultivated and wild species using several types of chloroplast DNA (ctDNA) markers and nuclear DNA (nDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Fourteen ctDNA types (haplotypes) and 115 RFLP bands were detected in Andigena, of which the main haplotypes and frequent RFLP bands were mostly shared with a cultivated diploid species, S. stenotomum Juz. et Buk. Principal component analysis of nDNA polymorphisms revealed a progressive and continuous variation from Peruvian wild species with C-type ctDNA to a group of wild species having S-type ctDNA in its variation range (S. bukasovii, S. canasense, S. candolleanum, and S. multidissectum), to cultivated diploid potatoes (S. phureja and S. stenotomum), and to cultivated tetraploid potatoes (Andigena and Chilean S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). These results suggest that the initial Andigena population arose with multiple origins exclusively from S. stenotomum. The overall evolutionary process toward the present-day Andigena was discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Journal
                agc
                Agronomía Colombiana
                Agron. colomb.
                Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Agronomía (Bogotá )
                0120-9965
                January 2010
                : 28
                : 1
                : 9-17
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Nacional de Colombia Colombia
                Article
                S0120-99652010000100002
                45aa86e3-1423-438e-bb28-9a72b3e92b75

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Colombia

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0120-9965&lng=en
                Categories
                AGRONOMY

                Horticulture
                plant domestication,plant breeding,Solanaceae,Solanum sp,domesticación de plantas,fitomejoramiento,Solanum sp.

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