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      Lithium battery chemistries enabled by solid-state electrolytes

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      Nature Reviews Materials
      Springer Nature

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          Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future.

          Access to clean, affordable and reliable energy has been a cornerstone of the world's increasing prosperity and economic growth since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Our use of energy in the twenty-first century must also be sustainable. Solar and water-based energy generation, and engineering of microbes to produce biofuels are a few examples of the alternatives. This Perspective puts these opportunities into a larger context by relating them to a number of aspects in the transportation and electricity generation sectors. It also provides a snapshot of the current energy landscape and discusses several research and development opportunities and pathways that could lead to a prosperous, sustainable and secure energy future for the world.
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            Metal-Air Batteries with High Energy Density: Li-Air versus Zn-Air

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              Inorganic Solid-State Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Mechanisms and Properties Governing Ion Conduction.

              This Review is focused on ion-transport mechanisms and fundamental properties of solid-state electrolytes to be used in electrochemical energy-storage systems. Properties of the migrating species significantly affecting diffusion, including the valency and ionic radius, are discussed. The natures of the ligand and metal composing the skeleton of the host framework are analyzed and shown to have large impacts on the performance of solid-state electrolytes. A comprehensive identification of the candidate migrating species and structures is carried out. Not only the bulk properties of the conductors are explored, but the concept of tuning the conductivity through interfacial effects-specifically controlling grain boundaries and strain at the interfaces-is introduced. High-frequency dielectric constants and frequencies of low-energy optical phonons are shown as examples of properties that correlate with activation energy across many classes of ionic conductors. Experimental studies and theoretical results are discussed in parallel to give a pathway for further improvement of solid-state electrolytes. Through this discussion, the present Review aims to provide insight into the physical parameters affecting the diffusion process, to allow for more efficient and target-oriented research on improving solid-state ion conductors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Materials
                Nat. Rev. Mater.
                Springer Nature
                2058-8437
                February 14 2017
                February 14 2017
                : 2
                : 4
                : 16103
                Article
                10.1038/natrevmats.2016.103
                46a628d2-1f75-489f-9f90-5ba35ab51af3
                © 2017
                History

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