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      • Record: found
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      Interaktionen zwischen dem Peptidhormon Relaxin und dem humanen Glukokortikoidrezeptor

      , PD Dr. med. (Referee), , Prof. Dr. (Referee), , Prof. Dr. med. (Referee)

      Medizinische Fakultät - Universitätsklinikum Charité, Humboldt-Universität

      Medizin, Medizin, VS 7707, Makrophagen, macrophages, Rezeptor, Glukokortikoide, Relaxin, glucocorticoids, receptor, relaxin, WD 5824, VS 8107

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          Abstract

          Seit Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts ist Relaxin bekannt als Schwangerschaftshormon, das unter anderem zur pränatalen Weitung des Geburtskanals beiträgt. Erst in den letzten Jahren wurden weitere Wirkungen des Peptidhormons beschrieben. So beeinflusst Relaxin den Gefäßtonus, die Nierenfunktion sowie die Kollagenbilanz des Bindegewebes. Als Angriffsstelle des Peptidhormons wurden im Jahre 2002 zwei membranständige Rezeptoren, LGR7 und LGR8, identifiziert. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit an HeLa- und THP-1-Zellen konnte nun erstmals gezeigt werden, dass Relaxin als Agonist mit dem Glukokortikoidrezeptor interagiert. Zunächst konnte mit Hilfe von Koimmunpräzipitationen eine Bindung von Relaxin an den Rezeptor nachgewiesen werden. 30 Minuten nach Behandlung mit Relaxin kam es zu einer Translokation von Relaxin und Glukokortikoidrezeptoren in den Zellkern. Eine transiente Transfektion mit einem GRE-Luziferase-Konstrukt zeigte eine Aktivierung von „glucocorticoid response elements“ (GRE) nach Inkubation mit Relaxin. Funktionell führte Relaxin zu einer verminderten TNFalpha-Sekretion von Makrophagen nach Stimulation mit bakteriellem Endotoxin. Mittels PCR, Western Blots sowie 3H-Dexamethason-Inkorporation konnte eine Zunahme funktionell aktiver Glukokortikoidrezeptoren nach Behandlung mit Relaxin gezeigt werden. Alle beschriebenen Effekte des Relaxins ließen sich durch Koinkubation mit dem Glukokortikoidrezeptor-Antagonisten RU-486 aufheben.

          Abstract

          Relaxin has been known as a central hormone of pregnancy responsible for the dilatation of the birth canal since the beginning of the 20th century. Recent studies elucidated several new effects of relaxin such as regulation of vasotonus, renal function, and collagen turnover. In 2002, two G-protein-coupled receptors, LGR7 and LGR8, were identified as relaxin receptors. The present study shows for the first time that relaxin interacts as an agonist with glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in HeLa- and THP-1-cells. Initially, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed binding of relaxin to glucocorticoid receptors. Treatment with relaxin led to translocation of relaxin and glucocorticoid receptors into the nucleus within 30 minutes. After stimulation with relaxin, cells transiently transfected with GRE-luciferase constructs demonstrated activation of glucocorticoid receptors. At the functional level, relaxin reduced – in GR-dependent manner - TNFalpha-secretion of macrophages after stimulation with bacterial endotoxin. An increase of functionally active glucocorticoid receptors after incubation with relaxin was shown by PCR, western blots, and incorporation of 3H-labeled dexamethasone. All investigated effects of relaxin were abolished by co-treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Activation of orphan receptors by the hormone relaxin.

          Relaxin is a hormone important for the growth and remodeling of reproductive and other tissues during pregnancy. Although binding sites for relaxin are widely distributed, the nature of its receptor has been elusive. Here, we demonstrate that two orphan heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors, LGR7 and LGR8, are capable of mediating the action of relaxin through an adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway distinct from that of the structurally related insulin and insulin-like growth factor family ligand. Treatment of antepartum mice with the soluble ligand-binding region of LGR7 caused parturition delay. The wide and divergent distribution of the two relaxin receptors implicates their roles in reproductive, brain, renal, cardiovascular, and other functions.
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            RU486 (mifepristone): mechanisms of action and clinical uses.

            RU486 (mifepristone) has proved to be a remarkably active antiprogesterone and antiglucocorticosteroid agent in human beings. The mechanism of action involves the intracellular receptors of the antagonized hormones (progesterone and glucocorticosteroids). At the molecular level, the most important features are high binding affinity to the receptor, interaction of the phenylaminodimethyl group in the 11 beta-position with a specific region of the receptor binding pocket, and RU486-induced transconformation differences in the ligand-binding domain. These particularities have consequences at different steps of the receptor function as compared with agonists. However, the reasoning cannot be limited to the RU486-receptor interaction, and, for instance, there is the possibility of a switch from antagonistic property to agonist activity, depending on the intervention of other signaling pathways. It would be desirable to have derivatives with only one of the two antagonistic properties (antiprogestin, antiglucocorticosteroid) in spite of similarities between steroid structures, receptors involved, and responsive machineries in target cells. Clinically, the RU486-plus-prostaglandin method is ready to be used on a large scale and is close to being as convenient and safe as any medical method of abortion may be. The early use of RU486 as a contragestive as soon as a woman fears a pregnancy she does not want will help to defuse the abortion issue. Research should now be conducted to define an efficient and convenient contraceptive method with RU486 or other antiprogestins. The usefulness of RU486 for obstetric indications, including facilitation of difficult delivery, has to be assessed rapidly. Gynecologic trials, particularly in leiomyomata, should be systemically continued. The very preliminary results obtained with tumors, including breast cancers, indicate that further studies are necessary.
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              Human relaxin gene 3 (H3) and the equivalent mouse relaxin (M3) gene. Novel members of the relaxin peptide family.

              We have identified a novel human relaxin gene, designated H3 relaxin, and an equivalent relaxin gene in the mouse from the Celera Genomics data base. Both genes encode a putative prohormone sequence incorporating the classic two-chain, three cysteine-bonded structure of the relaxin/insulin family and, importantly, contain the RXXXRXX(I/V) motif in the B-chain that is essential for relaxin receptor binding. A peptide derived from the likely proteolytic processing of the H3 relaxin prohormone sequence was synthesized and found to possess relaxin activity in bioassays utilizing the human monocytic cell line, THP-1, that expresses the relaxin receptor. The expression of this novel relaxin gene was studied in mouse tissues using RT-PCR, where transcripts were identified with a pattern of expression distinct from that of the previously characterized mouse relaxin. The highest levels of expression were found in the brain, whereas significant expression was also observed in the spleen, thymus, lung, and ovary. Northern blotting demonstrated an approximately 1.2-kb transcript present in mouse brain poly(A) RNA but not in other tissues. These data, together with the localization of transcripts in the pars ventromedialis of the dorsal tegmental nucleus of C57BLK6J mouse brain by in situ hybridization histochemistry, suggest a new role for relaxin in neuropeptide signaling processes. Together, these studies describe a third member of the human relaxin family and its equivalent in the mouse.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medizinische Fakultät - Universitätsklinikum Charité, Humboldt-Universität (kvv )
                28 August 2006
                Article
                oai:HUBerlin.de:27450

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