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GIP and GLP‐1, the two incretin hormones: Similarities and differences

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      Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon‐like peptide‐1 (GLP‐1) are the two primary incretin hormones secreted from the intestine on ingestion of glucose or nutrients to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. GIP and GLP‐1 exert their effects by binding to their specific receptors, the GIP receptor (GIPR) and the GLP‐1 receptor (GLP‐1R), which belong to the G‐protein coupled receptor family. Receptor binding activates and increases the level of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate in pancreatic β cells, thereby stimulating insulin secretion glucose‐dependently. In addition to their insulinotropic effects, GIP and GLP‐1 play critical roles in various biological processes in different tissues and organs that express GIPR and GLP‐1R, including the pancreas, fat, bone and the brain. Within the pancreas, GIP and GLP‐1 together promote β cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, thereby expanding pancreatic β cell mass, while GIP enhances postprandial glucagon response and GLP‐1 suppresses it. In adipose tissues, GIP but not GLP‐1 facilitates fat deposition. In bone, GIP promotes bone formation while GLP‐1 inhibits bone absorption. In the brain, both GIP and GLP‐1 are thought to be involved in memory formation as well as the control of appetite. In addition to these differences, secretion of GIP and GLP‐1 and their insulinotropic effects on β cells have been shown to differ in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects. We summarize here the similarities and differences of these two incretin hormones in secretion and metabolism, their insulinotropic action on pancreatic β cells, and their non‐insulinotropic effects, and discuss their potential in treatment of type 2 diabetes. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2010.00022.x, 2010)

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      The mechanisms that balance food intake and energy expenditure determine who will be obese and who will be lean. One of the molecules that regulates energy balance in the mouse is the obese (ob) gene. Mutation of ob results in profound obesity and type II diabetes as part of a syndrome that resembles morbid obesity in humans. The ob gene product may function as part of a signalling pathway from adipose tissue that acts to regulate the size of the body fat depot.
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        The consensus algorithm for the medical management of type 2 diabetes was published in August 2006 with the expectation that it would be updated, based on the availability of new interventions and new evidence to establish their clinical role. The authors continue to endorse the principles used to develop the algorithm and its major features. We are sensitive to the risks of changing the algorithm cavalierly or too frequently, without compelling new information. An update to the consensus algorithm published in January 2008 specifically addressed safety issues surrounding the thiazolidinediones. In this revision, we focus on the new classes of medications that now have more clinical data and experience.
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          Cardioprotective and vasodilatory actions of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor are mediated through both glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways.

          The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) is believed to mediate glucoregulatory and cardiovascular effects of the incretin hormone GLP-1(7-36) (GLP-1), which is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) to GLP-1(9-36), a truncated metabolite generally thought to be inactive. Novel drugs for the treatment of diabetes include analogues of GLP-1 and inhibitors of DPP-4; however, the cardiovascular effects of distinct GLP-1 peptides have received limited attention. Here, we show that endothelium and cardiac and vascular myocytes express a functional GLP-1R as GLP-1 administration increased glucose uptake, cAMP and cGMP release, left ventricular developed pressure, and coronary flow in isolated mouse hearts. GLP-1 also increased functional recovery and cardiomyocyte viability after ischemia-reperfusion injury of isolated hearts and dilated preconstricted arteries from wild-type mice. Unexpectedly, many of these actions of GLP-1 were preserved in Glp1r(-/-) mice. Furthermore, GLP-1(9-36) administration during reperfusion reduced ischemic damage after ischemia-reperfusion and increased cGMP release, vasodilatation, and coronary flow in wild-type and Glp1r(-/-) mice, with modest effects on glucose uptake. Studies using a DPP-4-resistant GLP-1R agonist and inhibitors of DPP-4 and nitric oxide synthase showed that the effects of GLP-1(7-36) were partly mediated by GLP-1(9-36) through a nitric oxide synthase-requiring mechanism that is independent of the known GLP-1R. These data describe cardioprotective actions of GLP-1(7-36) mediated through the known GLP-1R and novel cardiac and vascular actions of GLP-1(7-36) and its metabolite GLP-1(9-36) independent of the known GLP-1R. Our data suggest that the extent to which GLP-1 is metabolized to GLP-1(9-36) may have functional implications in the cardiovascular system.

            Author and article information

            [ 1 ]The Division of Diabetes, Clinical Nutrition and Endocrinology, Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka
            [ 2 ]The Department of Nutritional Science, Okayama Prefectural University, Okayama, Japan
            Author notes
            [* ] Corresponding author. Yutaka Seino Tel.: +81‐6‐6458‐5821 Fax +81‐6‐6458‐6994 E‐mail address: seino.yutaka@
            J Diabetes Investig
            J Diabetes Investig
            Journal of Diabetes Investigation
            Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
            22 April 2010
            22 April 2010
            : 1
            : 1-2 ( doiID: 10.1111/jdi.2010.1.issue-1-2 )
            : 8-23
            © 2010 Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
            Figures: 6, Tables: 0, Pages: 16
            Review Articles
            Review Article
            Custom metadata
            February/April 2010
            Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLM version:3.9.3 mode:remove_FC converted:04.02.2014

            glp‐1, gip, incretin


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