The localization of CRF-41 related peptide was studied in the brain and posterior pituitary of the homozygous rats for the inherited diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro strain, DI) and of the Long-Evans rats (LE) as control. It was compared to the distribution of vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OXY) and OXY-neurophysin (N I). In both strains, CRF-41 was identified in two morphologically distinct systems:one was a hypothalamoneurohypophysial system simultaneously containing CRF-41, OXY and N I; the other was a hypothalamoinfundibular system carrying CRF-41 only. CRF containing neurons were located in the periventricular area of the anterior hypothalamus, in the retrochiasmatic part of the supraoptic nuclei (SON) and, for some of them, in the antechiasmatic part of SON. CRF immunostainings were enhanced by colchicine treatment in LE rats and by DDAVP therapy in DI rats.